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Timothy C. Sell, Mita T. Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai, Michael D. Wirt, John P. Abt and Scott M. Lephart

single-leg static and dynamic postural stability of male and female soldiers who currently occupy MOS with similar physical demand ratings. Based on the previous literature, we hypothesized that females would have better static postural stability and that males would have better dynamic postural

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Laura C. Reid, Jason R. Cowman, Brian S. Green and Garrett F. Coughlan

Global positioning systems (GPS) are widely used in sport settings to evaluate the physical demands on players in training and competition. The use of these systems in the design and implementation of rehabilitation and return-to-running programs has not yet been elucidated.


To demonstrate the application of GPS technology in the management of return to play in elite-club Rugby Union.


Case series.


Professional Rugby Union club team.


8 elite Rugby Union players (age 27.86 ± 4.78 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, weight 99.14 ± 9.96 kg).


Players wore GPS devices for the entire duration of a club game.

Main Outcome Measures:

Variables of locomotion speed and distance were measured.


Differences in physical demands between playing positions were observed for all variables.


An analysis of the position-specific physical demands measured by GPS provides key information regarding the level and volume of loads sustained by a player in a game environment. Using this information, sports-medicine practitioners can develop rehabilitation and return-to-running protocols specific to the player position to optimize safe return to play.

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Brock Laschowski, Naser Mehrabi and John McPhee

wheelchair curling. These investigations would provide unprecedented insights into the physical demands of this Paralympic sport. One of the main objectives of biomechanists is to evaluate the dynamics (ie, forces and moments) associated with human movements. Experimentally measuring the forces of individual

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Charlie Bowen, Kristian Weaver, Nicola Relph and Matt Greig

prevalence in elite youth players has been shown to be higher than that observed in their senior peers, attributed to training exposure in young elite players who lack the skeletal maturity to tolerate the physical demands imposed. 2 Lower-limb musculoskeletal abnormalities, malalignment, and a reduced

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Logan A. Lucas, Benjamin S. England, Travis W. Mason, Christopher R. Lanning, Taylor M. Miller, Alexander M. Morgan and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

prevention is developing a thorough understanding of potential contributing factors. 6 The high rate of lower-extremity musculoskeletal injuries in athletes is not surprising considering the physical demands of sports. Even a routine maneuver such as a plant-and-cut can result in impact forces that are over

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James Geiselman, Rachel Gillespie and Andrew Miller

Collegiate wrestling continues to grow in popularity and the physical demands of wrestling increases stress on the body, resulting in a high incidence rate of musculoskeletal injuries. 1 , 2 Epidemiological studies indicate that severe injuries account for 14.2% of all injuries in men’s wrestling

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Daniel J. Brinkmann, Harald Koerger, Albert Gollhofer and Dominic Gehring

premier league) reveals the physical demands 2 and the importance of agility ability in sporting performance for successful participation in modern-day sports. 3 In detail, faster and sharper change of directions requires neuromuscular control and the athlete’s capacity to rapidly produce forces to the

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Kristina Amrani, Andrew Gallucci and Marshall Magnusen

, agility, and flexibility, and a balance between anaerobic and aerobic capacities. The physical demands of tennis often lead to both acute and chronic injuries of the upper and lower extremities. Among tennis players, injuries to the lower extremity are most prevalent, followed by the upper extremity, then

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Matt Greig, Hannah Emmerson and John McCreadie

:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318267a35c 22820211 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318267a35c 15. Castellano J , Casamichana D , Dellal A . Influence of game format and number of players on heart rate responses and physical demands in small-sided soccer games . J Strength Cond Res . 2013 ; 27 : 1295 – 1303 . PubMed

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

pace across elements classified as walk, rising trot, sitting trot, and canter. Furthermore, Kraft et al 4 reported that it was only in the dressage discipline where riders exhibited signal alterations of the lumbar disks, attributed to the greater physical demands and intensity of daily training for