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Jennifer J. Heisz and Ana Kovacevic

Age-related changes in the brain can compromise cognitive function. However, in some cases, the brain is able to functionally reorganize to compensate for some of this loss. The present paper reviews the benefits of exercise on executive functions in older adults and discusses a potential mechanism through which exercise may change the way the brain processes information for better cognitive outcomes. Specifically, older adults who are more physically active demonstrate a shift toward local neural processing that is associated with better executive functions. We discuss the use of neural complexity as a sensitive measure of the neural network plasticity that is enhanced through exercise. We conclude by highlighting the future work needed to improve exercise prescriptions that help older adults maintain their cognitive and physical functions for longer into their lifespan.

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Guillaume Lamotte, Elizabeth Skender, Miriam R. Rafferty, Fabian J. David, Steve Sadowsky and Daniel M. Corcos

Objective:

This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods:

First, we perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of PRET on motor signs of PD, functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient perceived improvement, strength, and cognition in PD. Second, we perform a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Finally, we discuss the results of our review and we identify current knowledge gaps regarding PRET in PD.

Conclusion:

This systematic review synthesizes evidence that PRET can improve strength and motor signs of Parkinsonism in PD and may also be beneficial for physical function in individuals with PD. Further research is needed to explore the effects of PRET on nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and quality of life in individuals with PD.

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Kenneth E. Powell and Steven N. Blair

physical activity is sufficient An additive effect on weight loss when combined with moderate dietary restriction Older adults, falls and physical function Reduced incidence of fall-related injuries Improved physical function in older adults with and without frailty Reduced incidence of falls Improved

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Jennifer L. Copeland

contact among older adults, and social relationships are important predictors of a variety of health outcomes ( Pavela, 2015 ). Thus, functional outcomes are of particular importance to an older population. In a recent review we identified a clear association between sedentary time and physical function

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Debra J. Rose

associations have been found between time spent in sedentary behavior and physical function (e.g., reduced muscle strength, lower cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive decline) in older adults. Despite these documented associations, Copeland questions whether all sedentary behavior is detrimental to the

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

changes in central-nervous-system processing after injury and rehabilitation that may impair physical function and performance. These emerging areas are addressed at length in the ACL Research Retreat VIII Summary ( Shultz et al., 2019 ). However, there were also concerns that athletes may be lacking in

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Carolee Winstein

Program (ASAP) group achieved greater participant-perceived recovery at the end of therapy time point, including Stroke Impact Scale Hand, Strength, Mobility, Physical Function, and Participation scores, self-efficacy, perceived health, reintegration, patient centeredness, and quality of life outcomes

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

-Hopkins , D. , . . . Motl , R.W. ( 2015 ). Effects of a DVD-delivered exercise intervention on physical function in older adults with multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized controlled trial . Multiple Sclerosis Journal: Experimental, Translational, and Clinical, 1 , 1 – 8 . Motl , R.W. ( 2014

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Rebecca E. Hasson

.A. , Yu , H. , & Brown , E.R. ( 2008 ). Physical activity among adolescents. When do parks matter? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34 ( 4 ), 345 – 348 . 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.01.020 Balfour , J.L. , & Kaplan , G.A. ( 2002 ). Neighborhood environment and loss of physical function in