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Angela Tate, Shana Harrington, Melissa Buness, Susan Murray, Caitlin Trout and Corinne Meisel

Context:

Youth- through masters-level competitive swimmers incur significant shoulder pain. Risk factors associated with shoulder pain include high swimming yardage, a lack of cross-training, decreased shoulder strength and reduced core endurance, and limited posterior shoulder and pectoral length. Since training, swimming exposure, and physical-performance measures have all been associated with shoulder pain, the methods used to train swimmers may influence the development of shoulder pain, yet studies delineating training methods are lacking.

Objectives:

To identify in-water and dry-land practices among youth- through masters-level swimmers in the United States (US) and describe the potential effects of training practices on swimmers’ shoulders.

Design:

A Web-based survey was developed to identify common training practices in 5 areas: quantification of swimming and dry-land training and in-water techniques such as kicking drills, upper-body stretching, shoulder and core strengthening, and cross-training.

Participants:

156 swim-team coaches or captains of youth, high school, and college swim teams and 196 masters swimmers participated (N = 352). There was geographic representation from across the US.

Results:

Responses indicated diverse training practices. However, most respondents used kicking drills, which may provoke shoulder pain due to prolonged poor positioning. High yardage swum by high school and college teams increases their risk of shoulder tendinopathy. Stretching and strengthening exercises and dosages commonly used were inconsistent with current research recommendations and lacked specificity in terms of addressing typical mobility restrictions and muscle weaknesses described in the swimming literature. Core strengthening and cross-training are frequently performed.

Conclusions:

Several areas of in-water and dry-land practice were identified that may put swimmers’ shoulders at risk for injury. Further research regarding the safety and efficacy of training programs is recommended to determine optimal methods of injury prevention and performance enhancement.

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Aaron D. Sciascia, Arthur J. Nitz, Patrick O. McKeon, Jennifer Havens and Timothy L. Uhl

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) and physical performance measures allow clinicians to obtain both a patient’s perspective and a demonstrable assessment regarding their ability to perform activities in the context of disability, dysfunction, or impairment. 1 , 2 Taken individually, each

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Jorg Teichmann, Edin K. Suwarganda, C. Martyn Beaven, Kim Hébert-Losier, Jin Wei Lee, Florencio Tenllado Vallejo, Philip Chun Foong Lew, Ramlan Abdul Aziz, Yeo Wee Kian and Dietmar Schmidtbleicher

enhance physical performance measures in a cohort of uninjured elite female field hockey athletes. Methods Participants Participants were 21 female field hockey athletes (age: 23.1 ± 4.1 y) who were currently participating in training with the Malaysian senior national squad and preparing for a major

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Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Robert S. Thiebaud and Mark Loftin

differences in physical performance measures for community-dwelling older Japanese: a pooled analysis of six cohort studies . PLoS ONE . 2014 ; 9 : e99487 . PubMed ID: 24923425 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099487 24923425 10.1371/journal.pone.0099487 14. Abe T , Counts BR , Barnett BE , Dankel SJ

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Umut Ziya Kocak and Bayram Unver

: 21410538 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01267.x 21410538 16. Hegedus EJ , McDonough S , Bleakley C , Cook CE , Baxter GD . Clinician-friendly lower extremity physical performance measures in athletes: a systematic review of measurement properties and correlation with injury. Part 1—The tests

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Charlie Bowen, Kristian Weaver, Nicola Relph and Matt Greig

S , Bleakley C , Cook C , Baxter G . Clinician-friendly lower extremity physical performance measures in athletes: a systematic review of measurement properties and correlation with injury, part 1. The tests for knee function including the hop tests . Br J Sports Med . 2014 ; 49 ( 10

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

, Wrigley TV , Collins M , Cowan SM , Bennell KL . Self-report and physical performance measures of physical function in hip osteoarthritis: relationship to isometric quadriceps torque development . Arthritis Rheum . 2009 ; 61 : 201 – 208 . PubMed ID: 19177533 doi:10.1002/art.24277 19177533 10

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David R. Howell, Thomas A. Buckley, Brant Berkstresser, Francis Wang and William P. Meehan III

. Vestibular and oculomotor assessments may increase accuracy of subacute concussion assessment . Int J Sports Med . 2016 ; 37 ( 9 ): 738 – 747 . PubMed ID: 27176886 doi:10.1055/s-0042-100470 27176886 10.1055/s-0042-100470 32. Studenski S , Perera S , Wallace D , et al . Physical performance

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Fang-Yu Hsu, Kuei-Lan Tsai, Chia-Lun Lee, Wen-Dien Chang and Nai-Jen Chang

: 10.1080/02701367.1986.10605395 37. Lopes TJA , Simic M , Alves DS , et al . Physical performance measures of flexibility, hip strength, lower limb power and trunk endurance in healthy navy cadets: normative data and differences between sex and limb dominance [published online ahead of

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Ian J. Dempsey, Grant E. Norte, Matthew Hall, John Goetschius, Lindsay V. Slater, Jourdan M. Cancienne, Brian C. Werner, David R. Diduch and Joseph M. Hart

– 150 . 28182531 10.1123/jsr.2016-0126 29. Hegedus EJ , McDonough S , Bleakley C , Cook CE , Baxter GD . Clinician-friendly lower extremity physical performance measures in athletes: a systematic review of measurement properties and correlation with injury, part 1. The tests for knee