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Ian G. Campbell, Clyde Williams and Henryk K.A. Lakomy

The purpose was to examine selected physiological responses of endurance-trained male wheelchair athletes in different Paralympic racing classes (T2, n = 3; T3, n = 8; T4, n = 7) during a 10-km treadmill time trial (TM:10-km). Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) was determined, and a TM:10-km was completed on a motorized treadmill. From this, % V̇O2peak utilized and the relationship between V̇O2peak and TM:10-km were established. During the TM:10-km, the following dependent variables were examined: propulsion speed, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate. The results showed athletes utilize a high % V̇O2peak (78.4 –13.6%) during the TM:10-km. There was a moderate correlation (r = -.57, p < .01) between VO2peak and TM:10-km. No physiological differences were found between the paraplegic racing classes (T3, T4), which suggests that there is some justification in amalgamating these racing classes for endurance events.

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Ben J. Lee and Charles Douglas Thake

match the strain observed during “normal” nonsupported running. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the physiological response to running at 8 km·h −1 at different levels of BWS while breathing a hypoxic gas mixture compared with normoxia. It was hypothesized that cardiorespiratory strain

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Kenji Masumoto, Ayako Hamada, Hiro-omi Tomonaga, Kana Kodama and Noboru Hotta

Context:

Walking in water has been included in rehabilitation programs. However, there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of a water current on physiological responses, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and stride characteristics of subjects while they walk in water.

Objective:

To compare physiological responses, RPE, and stride characteristics of subjects walking in water (with and without a current) with those of subjects walking on dry land.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

7 male adults (mean age = 21.6 y).

Intervention:

Subjects walked on a treadmill on dry land and on an underwater treadmill immersed to the level of the xiphoid process. The walking speeds in water were set to be half of that on dry land.

Main Outcome Measures:

Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), RPE (for breathing and legs, RPE-Br and RPE-Legs, respectively), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, and stride frequency (SF) were measured. In addition, stride length (SL) was calculated.

Results:

There was no significant difference in the VO2, RER, HR, VE, RPE-Br, and RPE-Legs while walking in water with a current compared with walking on dry land (P > .05). Furthermore, VO2, RER, HR, VE, RPE-Br, RPE-Legs, SF, and SBP while walking in water were significantly higher with a water current than without (P < .05).

Conclusions:

These observations suggest that half the speed should be required to work at the similar metabolic costs and RPE while walking in water with a current, compared with walking on dry land. Furthermore, it was suggested that the physiological responses and RPE would be higher while walking in water with a current than without.

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Stephen F. Figoni, Richard A. Boileau, Benjamin H. Massey and Joseph R. Larsen

The purpose of this study was to compare quadriplegic and able-bodied men on selected cardiovascular and metabolic responses to arm-crank ergometry at the same rate of oxygen consumption (V̇O2). Subjects included 11 untrained, spinal cord-injured, C5–C7 complete quadriplegic men and 11 untrained, able-bodied men of similar age (27 years), height (177 cm), and mass (65 kg). Measurement techniques included open-circuit spirometry, impedance cardiography, and electrocardiography. Compared with the able-bodied group, at the V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min, the quadriplegics displayed a significantly higher mean heart rate and arteriovenous O2 difference, lower stroke volume and cardiac output, and similar myocardial contractility. These results suggest that quadriplegic men achieve an exercise-induced V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min through different central cardiovascular adjustments than do able-bodied men. Quadriplegics deliver less O2 from the heart toward the tissues but extract more O2 from the blood. Tachycardia may contribute to low cardiac preload and low stroke volume, while paradoxically tending to compensate for low stroke volume by minimizing reduction of cardiac output.

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George T. Hardison Jr., Richard G. Israel and Grant W. Somes

The purpose of this study was to identify the most desirable cranking rate to be used by paraplegic individuals during submaximal arm training programs. Eleven healthy paraplegic males (M age = 28.8 years) with lesion levels ranging from T4 to T12 served as subjects. Arm exercise loads for the four submaximal cranking rates studied (50, 60, 70, and 80 rpm) were set to elicit 60% of peak V̇O2. Duration of the submaximal tests was 15 min. V̇E, V̇O2, RER, HR, and differentiated RPE were recorded each minute throughout the 15-min test. A randomized block ANOVA and Duncan’s post hoc analysis indicated that 80 rpm produced significantly higher (p <.05) values for HR, absolute V̇O2, V̇E, V̇CO2, and V̇E/V̇O2 than any other rates. Cranking at 70 rpm resulted in significantly higher (p <.05) values for O2 pulse, while relative V̇O2 was significantly higher (p <05) at 70 rpm than at all other rates except 80 rpm. RPE was significantly higher (p <.05) at 50 rpm than at 60 or 70 rpm, with no difference between 50 and 80 or 60, 70, and 80. The authors concluded that 70 rpm was the most appropriate cranking rate for paraplegic males to use during arm training programs.

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Javier Yanci and Cristina Granados

, which suggests that the physiological demands could be similar to those of a real game ( Yanci, Iturricastillo, & Granados, 2014 ). However, to our knowledge, there is no study with the aim of describing the neuromuscular load and physiological responses. Fatigue is a complex concept, involving both

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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello and Paul S. Bradley

the demands (i.e., distances covered and acute physiological responses) of AS match-play and its impact on muscular endurance and power. Methods Subjects Sixteen male Brazilian AS players (age: 32 ± 5 years; range: 25–42 years; body mass: 68.4 ± 9.9 kg; stature: 1.72 ± 0.07 m, and body fat: 14 ± 2

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Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker and David L. Nichols

cognitive benefits to this population. Performing regular, moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise in the middle of life has been associated with a decreased risk of developing PD later in life ( Xu et al., 2010 ). During exercise, physiological responses may be altered due to the inherent motor symptoms

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Jerry Mayo, Brian Lyons, Kendal Honea, John Alvarez and Richard Byrum

Context:

Rehabilitation specialists should understand cardiovascular responses to different movement patterns.

Objective:

To investigate physiological responses to forward- (FM), backward- (BM), and lateral-motion (LM) exercise at self-selected intensities.

Design:

Within-subjects design to test independent variable, movement pattern; repeated-measures ANOVA to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE).

Participants:

10 healthy women.

Results:

VO2 and HR were significantly higher during LM than during FM and BM exercise. The respective VO2 (ml · kg · min–1) and HR (beats/min) values for each condition were FM 25.19 ± 3.6, 142 ± 11; BM 24.24 ± 2.7, 145 ± 12; and LM 30.5 ± 4.6, 160 ± 13. No differences were observed for RER or RPE.

Conclusions:

At self-selected intensities all 3 modes met criteria for maintaining cardiovascular fitness. Practitioners can use these results to develop rehabilitation programs based on clients’ perception and level of discomfort

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William M. Bertucci, Andrew C. Betik, Sebastien Duc and Frederic Grappe

This study was designed to examine the biomechanical and physiological responses between cycling on the Axiom stationary ergometer (Axiom, Elite, Fontaniva, Italy) vs. field conditions for both uphill and level ground cycling. Nine cyclists performed cycling bouts in the laboratory on an Axiom stationary ergometer and on their personal road bikes in actual road cycling conditions in the field with three pedaling cadences during uphill and level cycling. Gross efficiency and cycling economy were lower (–10%) for the Axiom stationary ergometer compared with the field. The preferred pedaling cadence was higher for the Axiom stationary ergometer conditions compared with the field conditions only for uphill cycling. Our data suggests that simulated cycling using the Axiom stationary ergometer differs from actual cycling in the field. These results should be taken into account notably for improving the precision of the model of cycling performance, and when it is necessary to compare two cycling test conditions (field/laboratory, using different ergometers).