Performance in all forms of motor activity related to sport performance improves progressively during the course of the childhood years as a consequence of normal growth and development. Whether (a) sport training can accelerate and ultimately enhance this biological development and (b) the existence of certain ages when training might prove to be more effective in improving performance, particularly early in childhood, remains uncertain. Physiological adaptations to endurance training in prepubertal children (improvements in maximal oxygen uptake) are dampened compared with adults, but enhancements of strength following resistance training are equally effective at all ages. The extent that intensive training regimens characteristic of early sport specialization in children can trigger physiological and performance adaptations may therefore depend on the form of exercise involved. Clearly, additional research is needed to enhance the understanding of the physiological responses to intensive sport training in prepubertal individuals.
Thomas W. Rowland
Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang
intensity levels. For instance, the lesson on the overload principle requires students to perform activities at various intensity levels and relate specific physiological responses to the concepts associated with physical effort exertion and the target heart-rate zone. In comparison with the Science, PE and
. Thomas & L. Bernot (Eds.), Langues et techniques, nature et société (Vol. Tome 2 , pp. 157 – 184 ). Paris, France : Klinckisieck . Lance , V.Q. , & Spodick , D.H. ( 1977 ). Physiological responses to prompt and sustained squatting. Measurement by systolic time intervals . British Heart
Stewart A. Vella
, demanding performance expectations, frequent intense competition, low self-esteem, and high stress or anxiety perceptions ( DiFiori et al., 2014 ). In sum, burnout is a potentially severe psychological and physiological response to the sporting environment that may affect a meaningful percentage of