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Ira Jacobs, Ethan Ruderman and Mackenzie McLaughlin

A traditional focus of exercise scientists studying the interaction of drugs and exercise has been on the effects of drugs on exercise performance or functional capacity. In contrast, there is limited information available about the effects of exercise on the efficacy of drugs that have been prescribed and ingested for therapeutic reasons. Those requesting the approval for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of new drugs to the public are required to submit evidence of drug effectiveness and safety to drug regulatory bodies. But, there is no associated requirement to include among that evidence the interactions of exercise with drugs. However, the physiological adaptations to acute and chronic exercise are such that there is good reason to suspect that exercise has the potential to significantly influence drug absorption and bioavailability, drug distribution within the body, and drug elimination from the body. This paper reviews the potential for interaction between exercise and pharmacokinetics.

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Thomas W. Rowland

Performance in all forms of motor activity related to sport performance improves progressively during the course of the childhood years as a consequence of normal growth and development. Whether (a) sport training can accelerate and ultimately enhance this biological development and (b) the existence of certain ages when training might prove to be more effective in improving performance, particularly early in childhood, remains uncertain. Physiological adaptations to endurance training in prepubertal children (improvements in maximal oxygen uptake) are dampened compared with adults, but enhancements of strength following resistance training are equally effective at all ages. The extent that intensive training regimens characteristic of early sport specialization in children can trigger physiological and performance adaptations may therefore depend on the form of exercise involved. Clearly, additional research is needed to enhance the understanding of the physiological responses to intensive sport training in prepubertal individuals.

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

influences (which interfaces the parasympathetic nervous system to decrease heart rate) and decreased sympathetic influences (which increases the heart rate) ( Wisen et al., 2015 ). Thus, these physiological adaptations in OB populations may explain the variations in heart rate responses to submaximal

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Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont

enhance physiological adaptations. In this regard, the affective-reflective theory of physical inactivity and exercise ( Brand & Ekkekakis, 2018 ) and the three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behavior ( Venhorst, Micklewright, & Noakes, 2018 ) are two recently

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

metabolic energy, which is an important physical adaption to the demands of the task ( Daniels, 1985 ). This efficiency-related physiological adaptation to training was also found in brain neural processes. The psychomotor efficiency hypothesis, which is based on the formula efficiency = work/effort, was

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Bradley D. Hatfield

experience ( Williams & Krane, 1998 ). But what happens in the brain? The human performance theory, the scientific evidence for efficiency of physiological adaptations to training, and the anecdotal descriptions of remarkable athletes, collectively, guided our thinking about the brain processes of the

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

). The multitude of physiological adaptations resulting from proper HA decreases the risk of exertional heat illness (while improving exercise performance), and individuals not exposed to HA are at greater risk. The positive adaptations from HA have led entities to implement HA guidelines in sport to