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Jill L. McNitt-Gray

weaknesses of the individual athlete. Understanding the biomechanics involved in this process provides important insights as to effective movement mechanics for task performance as well as positive physiological adaptations in response to training stimuli applied over time. Finding ways to support the

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Andrew D. Nordin and Janet S. Dufek

injury mechanisms due to the rates of mechanical tissue breakdown exceeding the rates of physiological adaptation, thus leading to overuse injury, as outlined by James (2004) 17 in the variability-overuse injury hypothesis. In contrast to intra-individual variability, inter-individual variation often

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla and Slobodan Jaric

Maximal sprints in the leg cycle ergometer exercise are commonly used in routine athletic testing as well as in studies investigating the physiological adaptations to strenuous exercise. 1 These tests provide valid measures of anaerobic performance, which is a determinant of success in short

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Alif Laila Tisha, Ashley Allison Armstrong, Amy Wagoner Johnson and Citlali López-Ortiz

literature for why stiffer connective tissue and longer sarcomere lengths are observed in spastic CP. We hypothesize that the physiological adaptations occur within muscles affected by spastic CP in an attempt to overcome effects of spasticity, leading to the higher resistance to contraction as has been

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Lee N. Burkett, Jack Chisum, Ralph Cook, Bob Norton, Bob Taylor, Keith Ruppert and Chris Wells

Numerous studies in the past 30 years have researched physiological adaptation to stress by wheelchair-bound subjects. Instrumentation necessary to produce this effect had to be designed and tested prior to obtaining valid data. This study had two main purposes: to design a wheelchair ergometer for physiological testing of spinal cord-injured subjects, and to demonstrate the validity of the maximal stress test when using the wheelchair ergometer. To test the validity of the wheelchair ergometer, 10 disabled subjects (9 paraplegic and 1 quadriplegic) participated in both a maximal field test (FT) and a maximal wheelchair ergometer test (WERG), with each subject serving as his or her own control. A randomly assigned counterbalanced design (5 subjects assigned to complete the FT first, with the second group of 5 subjects completing the WERG first) was used to reduce the learning effect in the study. The results of the t-tests indicated there was no significant difference between V̇O2 and V̇E, (STPD) averages for the WERG and FT for maximal effort with two-tailed significant levels of t = .9016 and t = .7294, respectively. The Pearson product moment correlation level was statistically significant at p < .0001, when the WERG V̇O2 was compared to the FT V̇O2 (r = .94), and was significant at p < .005 when the WERG V̇E was compared to the FT V̇E (r = .82).

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Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Francisco Fernández-Povedano, Jesús Salas-Sánchez, Felipe García-Pinillos and Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla

), %VO 2 max at lactate threshold, and running economy ( McLaughlin, Howley, Bassett, Thompson, & Fitzhugh, 2010 ) as well as biomechanical factors associated with mechanical efficiency ( Moore, 2016 ). In addition, endurance exercises cause physiological adaptations such as the increase of heart and

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Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker and David L. Nichols

on an ATM or AGTM might be appropriate alternatives to exercise on a LTM for adults with PD. The physiological adaptations and changes in functional outcomes to exercise on an ATM in those with PD have not been previously defined. However, differences between functional outcomes following long

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Byron Lai, Katie Cederberg, Kerri A. Vanderbom, C. Scott Bickel, James H. Rimmer and Robert W. Motl

/function among each subgroup. Can exercise programs be adapted to people of all functional levels and exert comparable physiologic adaptations (e.g., energy expenditure, force output)? Taken together, these criteria limit our understanding of the role of exercise in these conditions, such as during a period of