The purpose of this study was to analyze state school-based physical education (SBPE) policies’ text and the resulting legal implications. A textualist approach to the legal method of Statutory Interpretation framed the data analysis. Findings revealed the difficulty of determining with clarity a majority of PE statutes and it is probable that based on current wording, courts could not play a role in interpreting these statutes, thus leaving interpretation to educational authorities. Significant variability of how authorities interpret statutes increases the challenge of consistent interpretation or adherence to the NASPE Guidelines for Quality Physical Education and whether meaningful policy study can be conducted to determine if SBPE makes an impact.
Bryan A. McCullick, Thomas Baker, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Thomas J. Templin, Karen Lux and Tiffany Isaac
Combat oriented sports and activities have come under increasing scrutiny by the media and professional groups. In particular, within the last 5 years boxing has been a primary topic of concern. A variety of medical groups—neurological, pediatric, and general practice—have conducted extensive surveys and provided position policy statements regarding dangers associated with involvement in such an activity. Although the American Psychological Association recently endorsed a position advocating close scrutiny and eventual banning of amateur and professional boxing in 1987, surprisingly no serious review of the literature or empirical studies have been conducted with respect to a psychological evaluation of this sport. This article briefly reviews the evidence supporting the APA position on boxing.
Stephen S. Cheung
potentially vital spice in the overall appeal of sports for the general public. But despite the competitions happening in the heat of summer every year, the Australian Open’s extreme heat policy is brief to the point of being meaningless, with any and all decisions left completely to the referee’s discretion
Ineke Vergeer and John M. Hogg
This study aimed to examine the effects of four situational factors on coaches’ decisions about an injured athlete’s participation in competition. A telephone survey was conducted among 64 coaches training female gymnasts of various competitive levels. Coaches were presented with hypothetical scenarios depicting situations in which an athlete suffered an ankle injury prior to competition. Injury severity, the gymnast’s age and ability level, and importance of the competition were systematically varied in a total of 16 scenarios. Using a multilinear polynomial model (Louvière. 1988), decision policies were calculated at the individual and aggregate levels. The aggregate level analysis showed a four-way interaction effect. Cluster analysis on individual policies revealed two groups, membership of which was associated with personal injury history. Results suggest that in their decision making, coaches are sensitive to the unique situational characteristics surrounding the injury and are influenced by their personal experiences with competing while injured.
Brandy S. Cowell, Christine A. Rosenbloom, Robert Skinner and Stephanie H. Summers
Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the United States. This condition has been reported to affect 60% of female athletes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention emphasize screening for anemia in women of childbearing age. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A schools that implement screening for iron deficiency in female athletes as well as the screening policies for those who do. A link to an online survey was sent to 94 NCAA Division I-A schools to determine current practices concerning screening and treating female athletes for iron deficiency. There was a 58% response rate. Frequencies for each response were computed. Forty-three percent of responding institutions report screening female athletes for iron deficiency. This study suggests that screening for iron deficiency in female athletes at NCAA Division I-A schools is not a routine procedure and, for those who do screen, variability exists in the criteria for diagnosis, as well as in treatment protocols. Standard protocols for assessment and treatment of iron deficiency in female athletes need to be developed and implemented.
Collin Andrew Webster, Peter Caputi, Melanie Perreault, Rob Doan, Panayiotis Doutis and Robert Glenn Weaver
Physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) is an effective means for increasing children’s school-based physical activity. In the context of a South Carolina policy requiring elementary schools to provide children with 90 min of physical activity beyond physical education every week, the purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model of elementary classroom teachers’ (ECT) PAPAC adoption drawing from Rogers’ (1995) diffusion of innovations theory and a social ecological perspective. ECTs (N = 201) were assessed on their policy awareness, perceived school support for PAPAC, perceived attributes of PAPAC, domain-specific innovativeness, and self-reported PAPAC. Partial least squares analysis supported most of the hypothesized relationships. Policy awareness predicted perceived school support, which in turn predicted perceived attributes and domain-specific innovativeness. Perceived compatibility, simplicity, and observability, and domain-specific innovativeness predicted self-reported PAPAC. This study identifies variables that should be considered in policy-driven efforts to promote PAPAC adoption.
Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan
The purpose of this paper is to present the status of coaching in Botswana, particularly in terms of key developments in policies and practice. A brief overview of Botswana’s political, cultural, and geographical environments and economic status will be presented first to contextualize coaching and
serves the teaching of children and youth in public schools ( Bulger, Jones, Taliaferro, & Wayda, 2015 ; Metzler et al., 2015 ; Templin et al., 2014 ; Ward, 2016 ; Ward et al., 2017 ). My task in this article is to describe the pipeline (i.e., the setting); its policy pressure points (i
Laurie B. Patterson, Susan H. Backhouse and Sergio Lara-Bercial
The importance of education in the prevention of doping behaviours has been emphasised both by research (e.g., Backhouse, Patterson, & McKenna, 2012 ) and policy (e.g., the World Anti-Doping Code [WADC], 2015 ). Moreover, the global organisation responsible for coordinating anti-doping efforts
Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
) most barriers to retaining PETE students are external and tied to policy; and (d) lack of time and resources discourage PETE retention efforts. Student Retention is Part of the Job The PETE coordinators generally viewed student retention as aligned with their duties and responsibilities as both a faculty member