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Alixandra N. Krahn

she sees untapped or unappreciated leadership talent or potential” ( Kerr & Banwell, 2016 , p. 2). In addition, government support, aimed at advancing women into high levels of sport coaching, has resulted in the creation of policy (e.g., Actively Engaged: A Policy on Sport for Women and Girls) which

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Liam J.A. Lenten, Aaron C.T. Smith and Ralph-Christopher Bayer

(WADA) presented its initial antidoping policy code in 2003 based upon the assumption that unrestricted PES use undermines elite sport’s social utility, credibility, and long-term viability. WADA’s antidoping code declares that the use of certain substances confers users with an unfair advantage and

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

retention ( Frazier, 2011 ; Lester, 2013 ; McKay et al., 2008 ; Twale & De Luca, 2008 ), the purpose of this paper is to offer insights gleaned from the extant literature and policy. Most faculty have likely engaged in some form of informal commiseration (i.e., hallway chats) on experienced or observed

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Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze

adoption of new sport policies across geographic boundaries, including institutional factors associated with heterogeneity in adoption speed. Institutional change includes not only practice or structural change at the organizational level but also policy change at the state, regional, or national level

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Laurence Chalip

Over the past two decades, policy analysis has developed as a collection of formal methods to enhance policy design and implementation. Interpretive and critical methods for policy analysis have recently been advocated as a way to clarify the parameters of policy problems and thereby improve policy formulation and implementation. The heuristic basis for interpretive and critical policy analysis is consistent with contemporary findings in the psychology of decision making. Formal methods for interpretive and critical policy analysis are elaborated and illustrated via application to the drafting of the U.S. Amateur Sports Act (PL 95-606). It is shown that the methods illumine decision processes that have caused sport development to become subordinate to the administrative rationalization of American Olympic sport governance.

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Monica A.F. Lounsbery

For children, schools play an important role in providing and promoting physical activity, yet growing school pressure to produce academic achievement gains have limited the priority of physical activity producing programs. The Institute of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Heart Association, and others have developed recommendations for school physical activity policy and there is growing interest in examining the relationship between existing school physical activity policies, school practices, and physical activity. Given that research on school physical activity policy is in its infancy, my goal in writing this paper is to introduce readers to key aspects of school physical activity policy while simultaneously outlining existing research efforts and highlighting the many critical research gaps that still exist. I conclude the paper by linking policy to advocacy and outlining considerations for formulating effective advocacy efforts while emphasizing the need for advocacy research.

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Barrie Houlihan

The article provides an analysis of the transition of antidoping policy from a series of relatively discrete processes, confined to individual sports, events, or countries, to a global policy that comprises a complex network of relationships involving governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Regime theory is used to examine the nature of the policy process at the international level, focusing particularly on the difficulties of defining the objective of harmonization and of achieving compliance. The characteristics of the regime are identified, and issues of resource dependence, capacity building, verification of compliance, and the increasing centrality of government to policy implementation are examined. Despite the constant risk of defection and the tensions within the regime, the conclusion is drawn that the regime should not be deemed ineffective. Increasing effectiveness, however, is likely to occur at the cost of progressive marginalization of sports organizations.

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Lin Yu, Hanhan Xue and Joshua I. Newman

capital flows with(in) the city. Through this series of policies and strategic development initiatives, the government explicitly put forward a goal of building Shanghai as a “first-tier sports city in Asia.” By seeking to raise the international profile of the city through major sporting events

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Georgia Cervin

power imbalance between the FIG and IOC allowed the IOC to exert pressure and influence on the FIG about how it governed gymnastics. This pressure to abide by Olympic norms is seen in policies developed across several fields, including those related to gender, economics, and athlete welfare, all of

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Heather Sykes

This article examines developments in gender policies in sport in relation to recent changes in transsexual rights legislation and gender identity activism. The Gay Games has developed a gender identity policy about “men, women, transgender and intersex” athletes. In 2004, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) introduced the Stockholm Consensus on sex reassignment surgery to allow “transsexual” athletes to compete at the Olympics. These developments do not indicate an overall increase in the acceptance of gender variance in the world of sport; rather, there has been ongoing resistance to inclusive gender policies in mainstream sport organizations. I argue this resistance is based on anxieties about the instability of the male/female gender binary and the emergence of queer gender subjectivities within women’s, gay, and mainstream sporting communities.