(WADA) presented its initial antidoping policy code in 2003 based upon the assumption that unrestricted PES use undermines elite sport’s social utility, credibility, and long-term viability. WADA’s antidoping code declares that the use of certain substances confers users with an unfair advantage and
Liam J.A. Lenten, Aaron C.T. Smith and Ralph-Christopher Bayer
Over the past two decades, policy analysis has developed as a collection of formal methods to enhance policy design and implementation. Interpretive and critical methods for policy analysis have recently been advocated as a way to clarify the parameters of policy problems and thereby improve policy formulation and implementation. The heuristic basis for interpretive and critical policy analysis is consistent with contemporary findings in the psychology of decision making. Formal methods for interpretive and critical policy analysis are elaborated and illustrated via application to the drafting of the U.S. Amateur Sports Act (PL 95-606). It is shown that the methods illumine decision processes that have caused sport development to become subordinate to the administrative rationalization of American Olympic sport governance.
Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze
adoption of new sport policies across geographic boundaries, including institutional factors associated with heterogeneity in adoption speed. Institutional change includes not only practice or structural change at the organizational level but also policy change at the state, regional, or national level
The article provides an analysis of the transition of antidoping policy from a series of relatively discrete processes, confined to individual sports, events, or countries, to a global policy that comprises a complex network of relationships involving governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Regime theory is used to examine the nature of the policy process at the international level, focusing particularly on the difficulties of defining the objective of harmonization and of achieving compliance. The characteristics of the regime are identified, and issues of resource dependence, capacity building, verification of compliance, and the increasing centrality of government to policy implementation are examined. Despite the constant risk of defection and the tensions within the regime, the conclusion is drawn that the regime should not be deemed ineffective. Increasing effectiveness, however, is likely to occur at the cost of progressive marginalization of sports organizations.
Policy analytic methods derived from hermeneutics and critical theory are particularly useful for the analysis of sport policy discourse. A key objective of such methods is to provide analyses with the potential to empower stakeholders by locating key attributions and legitimations that direct and constrain policy options. This concern for empowerment links policy analysis to recent arguments for the utility of participatory action research in sport management. Techniques of critical policy analysis provide a useful adjunct tool because they furnish interpretations and critiques that can be used by undervalued or excluded stakeholders to challenge debilitating policy assumptions. Two key Procedures for critical interpretation are illustrated via application to the discourse guiding the formulation of New Zealand's sport policies. Legitimation critique exposes key reasons why athletes were never pivotal to policy deliberations, and why subsequent policy outcomes fail to address key athlete concerns. Attribution critique illumines the presuppositions that caused the development of sport infrastructure or sport programs to be excluded from the policy focus. It is argued that policy design failures of this kind can be averted via the application of critical policy analysis during policy design.
Brian E. Menaker and Daniel P. Connaughton
Alcohol consumption at college football games concerns stadium and university administrators because of the risk of alcohol-related crime, injury, and other potential problems. The purpose of this study was to determine how many of the 120 NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision athletic department Web sites posted their stadium alcohol policies, what their alcohol policies contained, and how they differed. An analysis of information about the availability of alcohol, restrictions on alcohol consumption, and the enforcement of the policies on their official university-sponsored athletic department stadium Web sites was conducted. Results of the study suggested that alcohol policy information is often unavailable or difficult to locate. College athletic department Web sites are typically filled with varying information about their sport teams, but because of the layout and busy nature of such sites, it is often difficult to find certain information on them.
Marijke Taks and Laura Misener
In this case, a local sport tourism officer has been asked to prepare a recommendation for Evex City Council regarding which types of events the city should bid for, based on their public policy agenda of enhancing tourism for economic development purposes and stimulating sport participation for residents. A questionnaire, a codebook, and a data set from two events, an international figure skating event and a provincial gymnastics event, are provided to assist in making a decision. The data set includes the spectators’ identification with and motives for attending the events, tourism activities in which they participated, and some sociodemographic variables. Analyses of the data and interpretation of the results should assist the sport tourism officer in providing accurate recommendations to policymakers. Theories and frameworks that underpin this case include public policy schemas; identity, motives, and tourism behavior of event attendees; sport participation outcomes from sport events; leveraging; and event portfolios.
Ian Henry, Mahfoud Amara, Mansour Al-Tauqi and Ping Chao Lee
This article provides a four-fold typology of comparative sports policy studies: Type 1, Seeking Similarities, is a nomothetic approach seeking law-like generalization; Type 2 is Describing Difference, an ideographic approach seeking to capture the specificity of policy systems; Type 3, Theorizing the Transnational, goes beyond the nation-state as the unit of analysis to fuse global and local levels of explanation; and Type 4, Defining Discourse, seeks to analyze ways in which policy discourse defines the reality of the policy problems it seeks to address. The authors underline the ontological and epistemological assumptions of such approaches that are often only implicit, and they employ selected examples to illustrate the contribution to knowledge of the different approaches.
Matthew Juravich and Brian M. Mills
administrators and coaches as well as player resources. We focus our analyses on schools comprising NCAA Division 1 men’s basketball, as those teams have been directly impacted by an exogenous policy shock dictated to them by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Specifically, we investigate the “one
James H. Conn
The present study investigated the extent of coverage and distribution of policy content within selected interscholastic athletic handbooks. A total of 400 high schools in the U.S., each state represented by 8 schools, were systematically selected to participate in the study. Each high school was asked to submit its athletic handbook to be examined for content. The content was tabulated in the categories of personnel, student athletes and cheerleaders, medical treatment and safety, organization and governance, public relations, management of events, facilities/equipment/suppiies, fiscal management, and transportation. To determine the uniformity of distribution between major categories and within subcategories, chi square tests of goodness-of-fit were used. Some 40% of the policy statements were found in the categories of personnel (22.9%) and student athletes and cheerleaders (18.0%). Less than 10% of the total were found in fiscal management (4.7%) and transportation (3.6%).