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Temitope Erinosho, Derek Hales, Amber Vaughn, Stephanie Mazzucca and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

This study assessed physical activity and screen time policies in child-care centers and their associations with physical activity and screen time practices and preschool children’s (3–5 years old) physical activity.

Methods:

Data were from 50 child-care centers in North Carolina. Center directors reported on the presence/absence of written policies. Trained research assistants observed physical activity and screen time practices in at least 1 preschool classroom across 3 to 4 days. Children (N = 544) wore accelerometers to provide an objective measure of physical activity.

Results:

Physical activity and screen time policies varied across centers. Observational data showed 82.7 min/d of active play opportunities were provided to children. Screen time provided did not exceed 30 min/d/child at 98% of centers. Accelerometer data showed children spent 38 min/d in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 206 min/d in sedentary activity. Policies about staff supervision of media use were negatively associated with screen time (P < .05). Contrary to expectation, policies about physical activity were associated with less time in physical activity.

Conclusions:

Clear strategies are needed for translating physical activity policies to practice. Further research is needed to evaluate the quality of physical activity policies, their impact on practice, and ease of operationalization.

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Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Krystyna Kongats, Kim D. Raine, Corinne Voyer and Candace I.J. Nykiforuk

on the environmental (eg, natural/built) and policy (eg, regulation/legislation) determinants of physical activity are the 2 most promising strategies to promote physical activity at the population level. 7 , 8 Policy influencers (eg, those who are in a position of authority or “with influence in

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Hannah G. Calvert, Lindsey Turner, Julien Leider, Elizabeth Piekarz-Porter and Jamie F. Chriqui

accrued. Given this, other opportunities for PA, which represent a broad range of experiences of movement such as dancing, games, free play, and sport, are needed throughout, as well as before and after, the school day. The CSPAP model does not explicitly outline policy supports for PA, and there is

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Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton and Deanna M. Hoelscher

as an important setting for health promotion, especially the presence of environmental and noncurricular components, including policies around physical activity promotion. 10 , 11 In addition, policies implemented at the organizational level, such as an individual school, have the potential to

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Jeanette Gustat, Christopher E. Anderson, Keelia O’Malley, Tian Hu, Rachel G. Tabak, Karin Valentine Goins, Cheryl Valko, Jill S. Litt and Amy A. Eyler

behavior are key recommendations for reducing the risk of obesity and related comorbidities. 7 As individual behavioral modifications have limited population impact, environmental and policy approaches are considered efficient ways to address obesity. 8 , 9 The Community Preventive Services Task Force

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

retention ( Frazier, 2011 ; Lester, 2013 ; McKay et al., 2008 ; Twale & De Luca, 2008 ), the purpose of this paper is to offer insights gleaned from the extant literature and policy. Most faculty have likely engaged in some form of informal commiseration (i.e., hallway chats) on experienced or observed

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Monica A.F. Lounsbery, Thomas L. McKenzie, James R. Morrow Jr., Kathryn A. Holt and Ronald G. Budnar

Background:

Physical activity (PA) levels in schools vary widely, and there is interest in studying how student PA accrual relates to school policy and environmental conditions. School PA policy research, however, is in its infancy and generalizable measurement tools do not exist. We developed and assessed reliability of items on the School Physical Activity Policy Assessment (S-PAPA), an instrument designed to assess school PA policy related to physical education (PE), recess, and other opportunities.

Methods:

To develop items, we perused associated literature, examined existing instruments, and consulted school policy makers. For test-retest reliability assessment, 31 elementary school PE teachers completed the survey twice, 14 days apart.

Results:

S-PAPA uses open-ended, dichotomous, multichotomous, and checklist formatting and has 3 modules: 1) Physical Education (47 items), 2) Recess (27 items), and 3) Other Before, During, and After School Programs (15 items). Responses to more than 95% of items were highly related between Times 1 and 2. Generally, physical education and recess items had fair to substantial levels of agreement, and items about other school PA programs had fair to perfect agreement.

Conclusions:

Test-retest results suggest S-PAPA items are reliable and useful in assessing PA policies in elementary schools.

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Jerome N. Rachele, Vincent Learnihan, Hannah M. Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Gavin Turrell and Billie Giles-Corti

, including higher residential density, 5 a mix of destinations accessible within 10 minutes, 6 – 8 improved street connectivity, 9 sun-protected areas, 10 public transport, 10 well-maintained footpaths, 10 and safety from traffic. 11 Government policy shapes the physical makeup of communities and the

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Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Ben J. Smith, William Bellew, Lindsey Reece, Peter Gelius, Harry Rutter and Adrian Bauman

remained stable over the past 15 years worldwide, 6 and over 22 years in Australia. 7 National governments have been urged to prioritize this issue and commit to multifaceted policies and programs that address the socioecological determinants of inactivity. 8 , 9 The World Health Organization’s Global

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Monica A.F. Lounsbery

For children, schools play an important role in providing and promoting physical activity, yet growing school pressure to produce academic achievement gains have limited the priority of physical activity producing programs. The Institute of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Heart Association, and others have developed recommendations for school physical activity policy and there is growing interest in examining the relationship between existing school physical activity policies, school practices, and physical activity. Given that research on school physical activity policy is in its infancy, my goal in writing this paper is to introduce readers to key aspects of school physical activity policy while simultaneously outlining existing research efforts and highlighting the many critical research gaps that still exist. I conclude the paper by linking policy to advocacy and outlining considerations for formulating effective advocacy efforts while emphasizing the need for advocacy research.