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Laurence Chalip

Policy analytic methods derived from hermeneutics and critical theory are particularly useful for the analysis of sport policy discourse. A key objective of such methods is to provide analyses with the potential to empower stakeholders by locating key attributions and legitimations that direct and constrain policy options. This concern for empowerment links policy analysis to recent arguments for the utility of participatory action research in sport management. Techniques of critical policy analysis provide a useful adjunct tool because they furnish interpretations and critiques that can be used by undervalued or excluded stakeholders to challenge debilitating policy assumptions. Two key Procedures for critical interpretation are illustrated via application to the discourse guiding the formulation of New Zealand's sport policies. Legitimation critique exposes key reasons why athletes were never pivotal to policy deliberations, and why subsequent policy outcomes fail to address key athlete concerns. Attribution critique illumines the presuppositions that caused the development of sport infrastructure or sport programs to be excluded from the policy focus. It is argued that policy design failures of this kind can be averted via the application of critical policy analysis during policy design.

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James T. Reese Jr., Mark A. Dodds, Brett Burchette and J.P. Lutz

After eight years on staff, Katie Harris was recently promoted from director of ticket operations to a new position as associate athletic director at Montgomery University (MU). Several months into her new position, Katie is faced with a difficult challenge. Several thousand fans from conference rival Bucks State College (BSC) attended a men’s basketball game at the 15,000-seat MU Convocation Center. The large presence of BSC fans did nothing worthy of ejection, but was able to negatively impact the experience for many MU fans. MU’s high profile men’s basketball coach contacted the director of athletics requesting if something could be done to reduce the impact of visiting fans. Though the coach understands that dealing with opposing fans is part of sport, even on a team’s home court, the environment has become a distraction for coaches, players, and many significant athletic department donors who pay premium prices for season tickets. The coach received complaints from numerous supporters indicating that unless something is done they are considering cancelling their season tickets. Though complicated by logistics, financial, and legal consequences, Katie has been asked to research the issue and share recommendations for policy development.

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James J. Zhang

, they are also relevant and provide useful information for general sport management and policy studies, particularly for other growing economies with a similarly rising sport industry, such as Asian and African countries. Section II with five chapters is focused on the process of sport policy

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Laura Misener, Kerri Bodin and Marika Kay

conversations, and to ask some more specific questions about the current organization of Swimming Canada. Sam discusses the impact of 2015 being named “the Year of Sport” in Canada, which included a number of festivals, policy developments, and events such as hosting the 2015 Pan/ParaPan American Games

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Christopher J. Auld and Geoffrey Godbey

The literature suggests that the professionalization of sport has resulted in erosion of the decision-making power of volunteer administrators. However, little research has examined the extent to which volunteer and paid administrators may differ in their perceptions of influence in decision making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of influence in organizational decisions and to determine if they were related to decision areas at the board level in Canadian National Sporting Organizations. Results indicated that influence in decision making was not perceived as reciprocal; some areas of decision making were perceived to be the domain of either the professionals or volunteers; and professionals wanted the relationship to be more equal. Implications include the consequences for volunteers as the more dependent partner in the relationship, the potential for improved organizational decision making, and the recognition that the policy development/implementation split between volunteers and professionals may be too simplistic.

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Terry R. Haggerty

This paper suggests cybernetic strategies for improving organizational control and information systems. The suggestions are based on the postulates of Beer’s cybernetic Viable System Model (VSM). The VSM was based on the way the human body’s neural control system successfully manages the high degree of complexity it regularly faces. The model identifies five linked control subsystems and specifies propositions concerning their information-processing behavior. The five systems are responsible for the following key tasks: policy development, environmental matters, internal control, coordination of basic units, and the basic work of the system. The information-handling propositions focus on providing requisite capacities in (a) the communication channels linking the five control systems, (b) the transducers that carry information across system boundaries, and (c) the complexity of linked pairs of control systems. The suggested management strategies focus on designing organizations to satisfy the task differentiation, communication channel capacity, transducer capacity, and requisite complexity postulates of the model.

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Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Jennifer A. Hobson

In this study, the authors interviewed Olympic athletes about their perceptions of their leaders and managers, with a particular focus on perceptions of negatively valenced and socially undesirable characteristics and their effects. The results highlight five main dark characteristics: self-focused, haughty self-belief, inauthentic, manipulative, and success-obsessed. The findings also indicate negative effects of such characteristics (viz., performance and career threats, affected confidence, pressure and anxiety, and a lack of support) and positive effects of such characteristics (viz., motivation, resilience and coping skills, opportunities, and learning and awareness). Hence, it appears that not only are leaders and managers’ personalities “different shades of grey” but also the effects they have are too. The findings are discussed in relation to previous pertinent research, and with regard to their implications for policy development and future research.

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: The Illustrative Case of New Zealand Sport Policy Development Laurence Chalip * 7 1996 10 3 310 324 10.1123/jsm.10.3.310 Off the Press Off the Press 7 1996 10 3 325 327 10.1123/jsm.10.3.325 Sport Management Digest Sport Management Digest Lucie Thibault Ming Li David Pan Darlene Young 7 1996

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Emily M. Newell

broadly management issues than specific policy concerns. For example, while the use of performance-enhancing drugs, athlete activism, gambling on sports, and the inclusion and exclusion of specific sports in international competitions are very clearly related to sport policy development and governance

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Alex C. Gang

), Canada (authored by MacIntosh), Germany (authored by Hallmann, Breuer, Disch, Giel, and Nowy), and the United Kingdom (authored by Nauright and Keech), for instance, the focus rests on policy development and its administration to explain the interplay between and development of professional sport, elite