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Tina J. Hall, Lori K. Hicklin and Karen E. French

Purpose:

To examine the relationship between the South Carolina middle school physical education assessment results and the school characteristics. In addition, the relationship between teacher training attendance and student achievement were determined.

Method:

Student performance on four physical education indicators in 63 middle schools (and 116 teachers) were reported to the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between school characteristics as predictors of the performance indicator. ANOVAs were conducted to determine the relationship to teacher training and the performance indicators.

Results:

Statewide averages of student performance indicated that slightly over 50% of middle school students were rated as competent in all physical education indicators except health-related fitness (31.2%). The variability was high among all indicators. The correlations between the poverty index and the physical education indicators were significant and low. Teachers who attended data collection training sessions scored higher on all performance indicators, particularly health-related fitness knowledge. Teachers who attended professional development had significantly higher scores on motor skills, health-related fitness knowledge, and the overall weighted scores and approached significance on the health-related fitness performance.

Discussion/Conclusion:

This study suggests that teachers and the programs they deliver have a greater impact on student learning than do school characteristics. Teacher training and professional development is warranted. Most compelling is that the results of this study provide a strong argument against the practice of using student scores from other academic content areas to evaluate teacher effectiveness in physical education.

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

experiences into future PA intentions and leisure-time PA ( Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2009 ; Cheon et al., 2012 ). High poverty urban public schools, in which more than 75 percent of the students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, continue to be a challenging environment for students and teachers

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Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement, Robert Hilliard and Adam Hansell

, unemployment, low school attendance, and high poverty rates. Specifically, Swaziland has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence in the world with 27.2% of adults (15–49 years old) infected ( UNAIDS, 2016 ), 63% of the population lives below the poverty line, only 50% of secondary school-aged youth attend school, and

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Riley Galloway, Robert Booker and Scott Owens

difference in MVPA stated above. These results could be explained by differences in perceived SES, such as the poverty-to-income ratio ( Belcher et al., 2010 ). Perceived SES could alter the types of activities in which children participate, as research has shown White youth to engage in more extracurricular

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Mara Simon and Laura Azzarito

identity and adopting a color-blind perspective as a strategic means of aligning herself with whiteness. For Erika, growing up in poverty played a formative role in her embodied identity and was inherently tied to her family’s immigrant status, both of which she tried to escape through basketball (see

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Paul M. Wright, Lauriece L. Zittel, Tawanda Gipson and Crystal Williams

Head Start Agency in the midwestern United States. This agency provides Head Start services for eligible children and their families. The agency strives to be an effective advocate for children and families affected by poverty throughout five mostly rural and suburban counties. This particular agency

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

) poverty guidelines . Federal Register, 77 , 4034 – 4035 . Stodden , D.F. , Goodway , J.D. , Langendorfer , S.J. , Roberton , M.A. , Rudisill , M.E. , Garcia , C. , & Garcia , L.E. ( 2008 ). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An

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Catherine P. Abel-Berei, Grace Goc Karp, Marcis Fennell, Elisa Drake and Simon Olsen

Education Statistics, 2018 ). Three elementary schools had a poverty level exceeding the district average, typically 32%, and the district had a graduation rate of 79%. Table  1 presents demographic information for each school. The school district was in its second year of their PEP grant award when data

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Scott Westfall

’ schools were diverse. While the majority of the students were European American, there were moderate numbers of other races, such as African American, Hispanic, Native American, Arab, and Asian. The socioeconomic statuses of the schools varied drastically from poverty to upper class, with middle class

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Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner and Sean Healy

Statistics for Model Variables by Children and Adolescents Children (age 6–12 years) Adolescents (age 13–17 years) Visual Impairment Visual Impairment No ( n  = 28,249,833) Yes ( n  = 472,127) p No ( n  = 20,072,557) Yes ( n  = 505,401) p Sex (male) 50.93 61.25 .09 51.40 41.11 .16 Poverty level of household