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Ray M. Merrill

altitude), as well as urban residency, poverty, tobacco smoking, and obesity, have been associated with physical activity. The influence of these variables on physical activity may be direct or indirect. Associations may also be modified by other variables such as gender. A direct effect of air temperature

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Sandra E. Echeverria, Amiee Luan Kang, Carmen R. Isasi, Janice Johnson-Dias and Dula Pacquiao

Background:

Neighborhoods can be an important feature of the built environment influencing physical activity; however, neighborhood poverty and violence may pose significant barriers for youth physical activity. We conducted a community survey of 107 households with youth 3–12 years of age in select neighborhoods of the city of Newark, New Jersey, a highly impoverished and racially/ethnically segregated city of the United States.

Results:

The majority of sampled households did not have access to a park, and nearly 60% of youth were not engaged in a team or organized physical activity program. Hearing gunshots and seeing drug deals in the neighborhood were reported by 74% and 56%, respectively, of study participants. In adjusted regression models, a 1-unit increase in self-reported neighborhood safety was associated with perceptions that parks were safe for youth to use (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.3, 2.3) and increased odds of youth using parks (OR = 1.3, CI = 1.0, 1.6). Self-reported neighborhood violence was marginally associated with lower levels of Metabolic Equivalent (MET)-min/week of moderate PA (β = –54.25, P = .05).

Conclusion:

To ensure national goals of increased physical activity and use of outdoor spaces, addressing the neighborhood contexts under which the most vulnerable of our youth live will be required.

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Deborah A. Cohen, Bing Han, Sujeong Park, Stephanie Williamson and Kathryn P. Derose

were taken from surveys that addressed park use and physical activity from a larger randomized trial in the City of Los Angeles intended to promote physical activity in low-income neighborhoods ( Cohen et al., 2017 ). We defined low-income as the percentage of households in poverty above the city

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan

People who live in the villas (i.e., slums) of Buenos Aires are confronted with poverty, poor and dangerous living conditions, and discrimination. Ten weeks were spent in the villas delivering a program designed to enhance life satisfaction and self-worth through games and the development of mental skills. The purpose of this paper is not to report on the content or the effectiveness of the program, but rather to explore the variables within Argentina and the villas as well as my own cultural biases that may have influenced the delivery of a psychological intervention program. Argentine factors include a high prevalence of psychologists and a psychoanalytic focus. Characteristics of the villas include environmental factors (e.g., transportation issues, sanitation), logistical issues (e.g., venues, access to writing implements), and psychological matters (e.g., hopelessness, different perceptions of confidence). Practitioner concerns included limited familiarity with life in the villas and having values that might be different from those of the participants. The discussion includes recommendations for others who are considering working in similar cultural and contextual situations.

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Elizabeth K. Webster and Amanda E. Staiano

whether these sociodemographic differences in individual guidelines translate into differences in meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess sociodemographic differences (ie, age, sex, race, poverty level, and weight status) in meeting the 24-Hour

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Ayoung Woo, Christopher Hawkins and Sara Iman

residential segregation. Racial residential segregation is widely known as a factor that negatively affects the socioeconomic well-being of segregated minority populations, especially African Americans. 3 Segregation concentrates poverty in areas with substandard housing, unsafe living environments, low

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Christoph Buck, Anca Bolbos and Sven Schneider

-term unemployed inhabitants among all those unemployed, • Percentage of the total population who were receiving state support payments, and • Poverty indicator (jobseekers under 65 y of age who were receiving state support payments, as a percentage of all those under 65). The last figure is considered to be a

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Alyson J. Littman, Christopher W. Forsberg and Edward J. Boyko

Background:

Military veterans provide a large and diverse population to examine the extent to which compulsory physical activity (PA) in early adulthood is associated with PA later in life.

Methods:

We assessed self-reported and objectively measured PA and sedentary time in the 900 veterans and 2036 nonveterans with valid data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Analyses were adjusted for the complex survey design and age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and poverty.

Results:

Based on self-report, the proportion of veterans and nonveterans meeting PA Guidelines did not differ significantly (51.1% vs. 43.9%, P = .26). However, a greater proportion of veterans reported regular vigorous leisure-time activity (30.4% vs. 19.6%, P = .04) and muscle-strengthening activities (24.4 vs. 16.7, P = .051). Based on objective PA monitoring, activity levels between veterans and nonveterans also did not differ significantly, although mean counts and minutes per day were numerically greater in nonveterans. By self-report (P = .02) and PA monitors (P = .065), estimated sedentary time was greater in veterans than in demographically similar nonveterans.

Conclusions:

Veterans were no more likely than nonveterans to meet PA Guidelines, but may have been more likely to perform vigorous activities and conversely, to spend more time in sedentary activities.

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Jeffery P. Hughes, Margaret A. McDowell and Debra J. Brody

Background:

We examined leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in US adults 60 or more years of age. After determining the prevalence of 3 levels of LTPA (no LTPA, <150 minutes LTPA/wk, and ≥150 minutes of LTPA/wk), we examined the association of demographic variables and current health status with LTPA.

Methods:

Self-reported LTPA was examined by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, and self-reported health. Multiple logistic regression methods were used in the adjusted model.

Results:

Walking was the most frequently reported LTPA. Overall, 27% of adults achieved LTPA levels of 150 minutes or more per week. Male gender, younger age, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, higher education attainment, higher income status, being married, and excellent self-reported health were associated with higher LTPA. The prevalence of no LTPA (52.5%) exceeded the Healthy People 2010 objective target of 20%.

Conclusions:

Our findings show that more than half of adults 60 or more years of age reported no LTPA and that levels of LTPA in the older population vary by demographic and health characteristics.

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Gopal K. Singh, Michael D. Kogan, Mohammad Siahpush and Peter C. van Dyck

Background:

This study examines state and regional disparities in vigorous physical activity levels among US children age 6 to 17 years.

Methods:

The 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health was used to calculate vigorous physical activity (VPA) and no days of vigorous physical activity (NVPA) prevalence by state and geographic region. Logistic and least squares regression were used to analyze geographic disparities.

Results:

Vigorous physical activity levels varied substantially across geographic areas, with the East Southcentral region of the US having the highest NVPA prevalence (13.4%) and the Pacific region the lowest prevalence (9.1%). Children in Georgia and Tennessee had 2.2 to 2.3 times higher odds and children in DC, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, Kansas, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Washington (adjusted prevalence >13.4%) had 1.8 to 2.0 times higher odds of NVPA than children in California (adjusted prevalence = 8.4%). Adjustment for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, social capital, television viewing, sleep behavior, and parental physical activity doubled the magnitude of geographic disparities in vigorous physical activity levels. Area poverty, income inequality, and violent crime rates were independent predictors of VPA and NVPA.

Conclusions:

Although individual and area-level socioeconomic factors are important predictors, substantial geographic disparities remain, with children in several Southern states having particularly high risks of NVPA.