After age 65 years, muscle power (the product of force and velocity or force per unit time) declines faster than muscle strength (the ability to produce maximal force), with the rate of power loss reported to be 3.5–6% per year compared with strength losses of 0–1.5% per year ( Clark et al., 2013
Konstantina Katsoulis, Liza Stathokostas and Catherine E. Amara
María Hernández, Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero, Javier Hueto, José Antonio Cascante and María M. Antón
al., 2011 ). However, it is not entirely clear whether muscle strength and muscle power are involved in the physical activity levels of older men with COPD. The peripheral muscle dysfunction of the lower limbs observed in older men with COPD is characterized by a reduction in the maximum muscle strength and
Lei Zhou, Marie-Anne Gougeon and Julie Nantel
; Lim, Huang, Wu, Girardi, & Cammisa, 2007 ). PD also leads to changes in gait power profiles at the ankle, knee, and hip, which account for reduction in stride length and gait speed ( Lim et al., 2007 ; Morris, Huxham, McGinley, Dodd, & Iansek, 2001 ; Sofuwa et al., 2005 ; Winter, 1987 ). Growing
Wioletta Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Mariusz Naczk, Jaroslaw Arlet, Justyna Forjasz, Tomasz Jedrzejczak and Zdzislaw Adach
This study aimed to estimate the efficacy of inertial training in older women using the Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS), an original device. Forty-five active women age 53–74 yr performed inertial training with 2 different loads (0 or 5 kg) 3 times weekly for 4 wk. Training sessions consisted of exercises involving the shoulder muscles of the dominant and nondominant arms. The maximal torque and power developed by the dominant and nondominant arms in the 0-kg and 5-kg groups were significantly greater after 4 wk of inertial training (with the exception of torque for the nondominant arm in the 5-kg group; p > .05). Thus, short-term training using the ITMS is efficacious and can be used in older women to improve strength and power. However, ITMS training-induced changes in older women are greater after application of smaller external loads.
Trynke Hoekstra, Colin A. Boreham, Liam J. Murray and Jos W.R. Twisk
It is not clear what the relative contribution is of specific components of physical fitness (aerobic and muscular) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated associations between aerobic fitness (endurance) and muscular fitness (power) and CVD risk factors.
Data were obtained from the Young Hearts project, a representative sample of 12- and 15-year-old boys and girls from Northern Ireland (N = 2016). Aerobic fitness was determined by the 20-m shuttle run test, muscular fitness by the Sargent jump test. CVD risk factors included sum of skinfolds, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, and TC:HDL ratio. Several linear regression analyses were conducted for 4 age and gender groups separately, with the risk factor as the outcome variable.
Significant associations between aerobic fitness and a healthy CVD risk profile were found. These observed relationships were independent of power, whereas the (few) relationships between muscular fitness and the risk factors were partly explained by endurance.
Tailored, preventive strategies during adolescence, incorporating endurance rather than power sports, could be encouraged to help prevent CVD. This is important because existing studies propose that healthiness during adulthood is founded on healthiness in adolescence.
Harsh H. Buddhadev and Philip E. Martin
studies have examined the effects of external power output and cadence on aerobic demand or energy expenditure ( Belli & Hintzy, 2002 ; Bigland-Ritchie & Woods, 1974 ; Chavarren & Calbet, 1999 ; Gaesser & Brooks, 1975 ; Marsh & Martin, 1993 ; Samozino, Horvais, & Hintzy, 2006 ). Influences of power
Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish
power in ambush-marketing ethics. In so doing, the study takes a historical perspective on the IOC’s rights-management efforts and the ethical framing of ambush marketing as part of a broader communication strategy intended to inform consumer opinion. Note that this research builds on and extends Ellis
Brian A. Eiler, Rosemary Al-Kire, Patrick C. Doyle and Heidi A. Wayment
surprising given that sexual violence is often committed by individuals in positions of power and authority across a wide variety of contexts (e.g., Brackenridge, 2001 ; Watts & Zimmerman, 2002 ). Unfortunately, literature on athletes’ psychosocial experiences and reactions to abuse (e
Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson
heart beats per minute. The CSCS then used the following equations to calculate patients’ VO 2 max scores: VO 2 max = 111.33 − (0.42 × HR) for males; VO 2 max = 65.81 − (0.1847 × HR) for females. Vertical jump was utilized to assess patients’ power output and was measured at the treatment center using
espnW is ESPN, Inc.’s, first entity targeted at female fans and female athletes. espnW portrays female athletes as competent sportswomen and serious competitors as measured by quantitative analysis of photographs and articles on the site. A more critical look at the discourse, however, reveals 2 major themes. First, divergent dialogues are used in espnW articles to reify relations of power and privilege for male athletes. Divergent dialogues appear in articles on espnW in the forms of descriptive language used for female athletes, mention of nonsporting topics that have little or nothing to do with athleticism, and direct references to physical/personality attributes. Second, positioning espnW as “additive content” to ESPN for female fans relies on ideas of natural sexual difference and choice. If the institution of sport is defined by masculinity and partially upheld by traditional sports journalism, women are excluded.