is to demonstrate not how much, but how little, the organization has changed, generally since its inauguration in 1904 and particularly since the radical changes in Formula 1 in the 1970s, with regards to stakeholder policy and power management. Therefore, drawing on archival sources as well as
Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish
power in ambush-marketing ethics. In so doing, the study takes a historical perspective on the IOC’s rights-management efforts and the ethical framing of ambush marketing as part of a broader communication strategy intended to inform consumer opinion. Note that this research builds on and extends Ellis
espnW is ESPN, Inc.’s, first entity targeted at female fans and female athletes. espnW portrays female athletes as competent sportswomen and serious competitors as measured by quantitative analysis of photographs and articles on the site. A more critical look at the discourse, however, reveals 2 major themes. First, divergent dialogues are used in espnW articles to reify relations of power and privilege for male athletes. Divergent dialogues appear in articles on espnW in the forms of descriptive language used for female athletes, mention of nonsporting topics that have little or nothing to do with athleticism, and direct references to physical/personality attributes. Second, positioning espnW as “additive content” to ESPN for female fans relies on ideas of natural sexual difference and choice. If the institution of sport is defined by masculinity and partially upheld by traditional sports journalism, women are excluded.
Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha Ewing and Linda Forrest
Organizational power can be defined as access to and ability to mobilize resources such as supplies, support, and information (Kanter, 1977). Differences in organizational power in athletic departments can be seen as a function of sport (whether one coaches a revenue or nonrevenue sport) or of gender. This study examined the extent to which sport or gender best explained differences in the degree of organizational power that Division I college coaches hold in athletic departments. The sample consisted of 947 coaches who responded to a questionnaire that included items dealing with their access to supplies, support, and information. The results indicated that the nature of the intersection of sport and gender varied across the three dimensions of power. Consistently, however, female coaches of nonrevenue sports were most limited in their access to critical resources while male coaches of revenue sports had the most power. This led to the conclusion that an analysis on the distribution of power should examine it in the context of both gender and sport.
Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Cynthia A. Hasbrook
Televised texts of women’s sports are examined using the hermeneutical method. This study begins with the observation that women’s participation in team sports and certain “male-appropriate” individual sports is significantly lower than men’s participation in these sports. More striking yet is the media’s (particularly television’s) virtual disregard of women in team sports and certain individual sports. On the basis of these observations, the authors frame their research question: Do these imbalances constitute a symbolic denial of power for women? To answer this question, the authors investigate televised depictions of basketball, surfing, and marathon running. In each sport, the television narratives and visuals of the women’s competition are contrasted with those of the men’s competition. These depictions reveal a profound ambivalence in the reporting of the women’s sports, something that is not present in the reporting of the men’s sports. This ambivalence consists of conflicting messages about female athletes; positive portrayals of sportswomen are combined with subtly negative suggestions that trivialize or undercut the women’s efforts. Such trivialization is a way of denying power to women. The authors conclude by asserting that sport and leisure educators have an ethical obligation to redress the imbalance of power in the sporting world.
Mary G. McDonald and Susan Birrell
This paper discusses a methodology for interrogating power, which we call reading sport critically. Although versions of this method are currently practiced by a number of sport scholars, the theoretical and methodological groundings for the approach are rarely explicitly articulated. In this paper, we outline this critical analytic strategy, map its theoretical locations, and explore the ontological and epistemological issues that ground it. We advocate reading sport critically as a methodology for making visible and producing counternarratives, that is, narratives infused with resistant political possibilities.
The restrictive covenants contained in the professional baseball player’s standard contract can be justified on grounds of being the most efficient solution to the problem of transaction costs in an industry where the difficulty of selecting and managing talent is acute. Contract law legitimates these restrictive covenants. Closer scrutiny of the history and sociopolitical context of the employment relationship in baseball underlines the role of power differentials in determining the parameters within which transacting for labor takes place. Not only the reserve clause but also the negative covenant in the player’s contract has been important in providing the conditions for the efficient trading of players.
Cheryl L. Cole and Amy Hribar
We interrogate Nike’s implication in the developments of 1980s and 1990s popular feminisms by contextualizing and examining the advertising strategies deployed by Nike in its efforts to seduce women consumers. Although Nike is represented as progressive and pro-women, we demonstrate Nike’s alliance with normative forces dominating 1980s America. We suggest that Nike’s solicitation relies on the logic of addiction, which demonized those people most affected by post-Fordist dynamics. While Nike’s narrations of “empowerment” appeal to a deep, authentic self located at the crossroads of power and lifestyle, we suggest that these narratives offer ways of thinking/identities that impede political action. Finally, we consider the relations among Nike, celebrity feminism, and the complex and invisible dynamics that enable transnationals to exploit Third World women workers.
In this article I examine the role and working practice of rugby union club doctors in England. While medicine is widely perceived to be one of the most powerful professions in Western societies, sociologists of sport have argued that sport clinicians often wield relatively limited power over their athlete-patients. In this article I therefore attempt to shed further light on the “peculiar” character of sports medicine. Using data drawn from interviews and questionnaires, I argue that this phenomenon can be understood only by looking at the structure of the sports medicine profession, the specificities of the rugby club as a workplace setting, and the relationships club doctors have with clients (coaches and athletes) and other health care providers (physiotherapists).
Janet B. Parks, Patricia A. Shewokis and Carla A. Costa
Statistical power analysis involves designing and interpreting research with attention to the statistical power (probability) of the study to detect an effect of a specific size. Statistical power analysis, which is based on the interdependence of sample size, alpha, effect size, and power, is acknowledged by scholars of various disciplines as an indispensable component of high quality research. This paper reviews basic principles associated with power analysis and demonstrates its importance by comparing the meaningfulness of significant findings in two studies of job satisfaction. The perspective advanced in this paper is that the use of statistical power analysis will strengthen sport management research and will enable researchers to expand the body of knowledge in a systematic, coherent fashion.