James Park has been hired as the new CEO by the board of directors of GoSports Inc., a large national sporting goods retailer, which has been battling economic and internal issues over the previous years. Despite Park’s experience at the helm of large companies in need of profound strategic and structural change, in his new position at GoSports he has been “butting heads” with a powerful collective of executives unhappy with the hire and threatened by the new CEO’s accolades. To complicate matters, rumor has it that the decision to hire Park was far from unanimous, with various factions vying for control in the company, waiting for a chance to fill the power vacuum a quick departure by Park would leave behind. After two weeks with the company, Park is called before the board of directors to report on the progress made and how he plans to return GoSports to its former glory.
Florian Hemme and Marlene A. Dixon
Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish
power in ambush-marketing ethics. In so doing, the study takes a historical perspective on the IOC’s rights-management efforts and the ethical framing of ambush marketing as part of a broader communication strategy intended to inform consumer opinion. Note that this research builds on and extends Ellis
espnW is ESPN, Inc.’s, first entity targeted at female fans and female athletes. espnW portrays female athletes as competent sportswomen and serious competitors as measured by quantitative analysis of photographs and articles on the site. A more critical look at the discourse, however, reveals 2 major themes. First, divergent dialogues are used in espnW articles to reify relations of power and privilege for male athletes. Divergent dialogues appear in articles on espnW in the forms of descriptive language used for female athletes, mention of nonsporting topics that have little or nothing to do with athleticism, and direct references to physical/personality attributes. Second, positioning espnW as “additive content” to ESPN for female fans relies on ideas of natural sexual difference and choice. If the institution of sport is defined by masculinity and partially upheld by traditional sports journalism, women are excluded.
Janet B. Parks, Patricia A. Shewokis and Carla A. Costa
Statistical power analysis involves designing and interpreting research with attention to the statistical power (probability) of the study to detect an effect of a specific size. Statistical power analysis, which is based on the interdependence of sample size, alpha, effect size, and power, is acknowledged by scholars of various disciplines as an indispensable component of high quality research. This paper reviews basic principles associated with power analysis and demonstrates its importance by comparing the meaningfulness of significant findings in two studies of job satisfaction. The perspective advanced in this paper is that the use of statistical power analysis will strengthen sport management research and will enable researchers to expand the body of knowledge in a systematic, coherent fashion.
John Amis, Trevor Slack and C.R. Hinings
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of subunit interests, power arrangements, and organizational capacity in a program of radical transformation of a group of Canadian National Sport Organizations (NSOs). Using realtime data collected over a 12-year period, six case studies were constructed to provide insight into the role that these internal dynamics had on the propensity of organizations to change. Results showed that NSOs that completed the transformation possessed leadership with the technical and behavioral capacity for change, had an organizational structure in which volunteers were willing to share power with professional staff, and engaged in an all-encompassing transformation process that embraced the entire organization. By contrast, those NSOs that failed to complete the change lacked effective transformational leadership, had a structure in which power was retained centrally by volunteer board members, and were characterized by ongoing struggles among subunits to protect their own interests.
The under-representation of women in sport management has increasingly been recognized by government and nongovernment organizations, and there has been some attempt to redress the imbalance. Research has indicated, however, that the gendering of sport organizations is not simply a numbers’ game. The purpose of this study was to analyze the exercise of exclusionary power as an aspect of gender relations within a six member volunteer Board of Directors of an Australian local, grass-roots sport organization. Data were gathered using semistructured interviews, participant observation and documentary evidence over a 15-month period. This study identified that, although numerical underrepresentation of men or women on this Board was not an issue for either sex, exclusionary power was exercised in a number of overlapping ways which ultimately limited the participation, input, and influence of its female members.
Cara Carmichael Aitchison
This article aims toward developing a critical theory that can further advance feminist research in sport management. I seek to offer a critical analysis of gender relations in sport and leisure management by developing a theoretical critique of gender (in)equity that integrates both social theory and cultural analyses. The original empirical data was gathered in a national study of Gender Equity in Leisure Management conducted by the author in 1998/99 and secondary data was drawn from comparative studies undertaken in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the U.S. (Aitchison, Brackenridge, & Jordan, 1999; Henderson & Bialeschki, 1993, 1995; Mckay, 1996; Shinew & Arnold, 1998). The research cited demonstrates that women’s experience of sport and leisure management is shaped by both structural and cultural factors. My findings highlight the need for new epistemological perspectives as much as new methodological approaches and techniques. This new perspective acknowledges the complexities of gender–power relations in the workplace and recognizes the interconnectedness and mutually informing nature of structural and cultural power, thus opening the way for more sophisticated analyses and understandings of gender equity in sport and leisure management.
Skye G. Arthur-Banning
Ronald B. Mitchell, Todd Crosset and Carol A. Barr
Popular and academic discourse typically analyze the strategies used to induce compliance with sport association policies and rules within a framework that shoehorns a diverse array of strategies into two categories: sanctions or compensation, This article proposes a taxonomy that goes beyond the “logic of consequences” inherent in the behavioral models of sanctions and compensation. Sport managers and scholars can encourage compliance through six ideal-type strategies: punitive, remunerative, generative, preventive, cognitive, and normative. These six categories provide the foundation for systematically evaluating the relative effectiveness of different strategies at altering the behavior of league members. This article delineates the different paths by which these different policy strategies influence behavior. Five questions designed to guide managers in the selection of strategies are offered. Although the National Collegiate Athletic Association is used as a case example throughout, the framework has applicability to all sport associations.
Fabrice Desmarais and Toni Bruce
This article explores how local pressures intersect to produce differing broadcasts in 2 cultural contexts. This is achieved via a cross-cultural analysis of a decade of televised rugby union matches between France and New Zealand and interviews with leading commentators in both countries. The authors argue that although the overarching commercial imperative to capture audiences might be the same in both countries, and despite global tendencies toward homogenized presentation of sports events, there are local differences in expectations about which kinds of audiences should be captured, and these lead to different practices and emphases in the live broadcasts. The authors suggest that in each country, broadcasts are the result of a complex set of pressures that interact to produce broadcasts with “local” flavor and characteristics.