Deliberate practice (DP), an activity aimed at enhancing an individual’s performance, has been reported to be crucial for achieving a state of expertise in various domains, such as education, music, and sport. In this article, the relationships between DP and the process of athletic performance adaptation are explored by elaborating on the main principle of the theory of training—periodization. We argue that periodization should be considered as a mechanism for ensuring DP, and that the implementation of periodization principles (cycles and phases) in DP activities can facilitate adaptation processes leading to expert performance. We describe the characteristics and features of DP, review a series of studies on DP and athletic performance (N = 21), discuss the importance of periodization in sport training, and outline a number of benefits of periodization. A model that emphasizes the link between periodization and DP activities in each phase of sport development is proposed, and a number of research approaches to address periodization are discussed.
Ronnie Lidor, Gershon Tenenbaum, Gal Ziv and Vladimir Issurin
Patricia S. Pohl and Carolee J. Winstein
The purpose of ihis study was to compare the effects of a single practice session on performance strategies used by young and older adults to decrease movement time (MT) while maintaining accuracy of an aiming task. Five young and 5 older adult males practiced until each accumulated 500 target hits in each of two complexity conditions as defined by Fitts’s law. Participants decreased MT with practice; however, older adults had longer MTs than the young, particularly in the high-complexity condition. With practice in the low-complexity condition, participants decreased absolute acceleration and deceleration times but maintained the relative amount of MT devoted to temporal phases. In contrast, with practice in the high-complexity condition, participants decreased absolute deceleration and dwell time and changed the temporal structure. Results suggest that older adults can decrease MT with practice and that the performance strategies adopted to speed performance are more a function of task complexity than age.
Steve Hansen, Digby Elliott and Michael A. Khan
The utility of ellipsoids for quantifying central tendency and variability throughout the trajectory of goal-directed movements is described. Aiming movements were measured over 2 days of practice and under full-vision and no-vision conditions. A three-dimensional optoelectronic system measured the movements. Individual ellipsoid locations, dimensions, and volumes were derived from the average location and the spatial variability of the effector’s trajectory at proportional temporal periods throughout the movement. Changes in ellipsoid volume over time illustrate the evolution in motor control that occurred with practice and the processes associated with visual control. This technique has the potential to extend our understanding of limb control and can be applied to practical problems such as equipment design and evaluation of movement rehabilitation.
Bradley W. Young, Nikola Medic, Patricia L. Weir and Janet L. Starkes
Researchers have contended that patterns of age-related decline are not necessarily due to age, but rather to disuse, or declining practice (Bortz, 1982; Ericsson, 2000; Maharam, Bauman, Kalman, Skolnik, & Perle, 1999). A regression approach was used to examine age and training variables as predictors of 10-km running performance between 40 and 59 years of age. A sample of 30 Masters runners (M age = 50.1 years, M 10-km time = 39:19) reported data for ongoing training, cumulative running in the past 5 years, and cumulative running earlier in a career. In Analysis 1, ongoing training variables explained more variance in performance than age alone, and reduced the unique variance attributable to age in a combined model. In Analysis 2, findings were replicated using past cumulative running variables and age; running in the past 5 years explained more unique variance than age alone. Discussion focuses on how findings relate to the selective maintenance account (Krampe & Ericsson, 1996), how various aspects of training help to preserve performance in aging populations, and recommendations for future research.
Boris Dugonjić, Saša Krstulović and Goran Kuvačić
adverse effect on health, physiological, and psychological status of athletes, there are important ethical implications of RWL that are often neglected ( Artioli et al., 2016 ). For example, some researchers question if it is ethically justified to tolerate athletes practicing RWL, when facing
Jared Porter, Hubert Makaruk and Marcin Starzak
According to the constrained action hypothesis, an external focus of attention is beneficial for motor learning due to improvements in movement automization. In contrast, an internal focus of attention interferes with automaticity and decreases the effects of motor learning. This study was designed to test the automaticity assumption of the focus of attention effect within a highly skilled population. We examined the effects of attentional focus on kinematics in rope jumping and visual control. Participants practiced the rope-jumping task over five days of acquisition, which was followed by a retention and transfer test. The findings provided evidence that the learning of the task was improved and automaticity was increased by the external focus compared with the internal focus and no attentional (i.e., control condition) conditions. In addition, these findings indicate that visual attention as a function of attentional focus has a stronger relationship with practice performance rather than with motor learning effects.
Mark Urtel, Sara F. Michaliszyn and Craig Stiemsma
Internships in higher education are not a new practice. In fact, it is generally noted that the first formal internship program occurred in 1889 at Johns Hopkins Medical School ( Wentz & Ford, 1984 ). Prior to this, medical school faculty were developing ways for medical “apprentices” to acquire
Deborah A. Jehu, Yves Lajoie and Nicole Paquet
greater within one testing session (.98) than those between four testing sessions (.92) during overground walking ( Karst, Hageman, Jones, & Bunner, 1999 ). Other research demonstrated that dual-task practice between the experimental protocol in Sessions 1 and 2 resulted in reduced variability of gait
Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke
weight divisions between combat sports affect these recovery efforts. Factors aside from competition regulations and physiological requirements influence weight loss practices, including psychology, level of competition, sporting culture, as well as the wider environment. 1 , 15 For example, differences
Ramesh Kaipa, Bethany Howard, Roha Kaipa, Eric Turcat and Laurielle Prema
The process of attaining motor skills involves motor learning, which reflects a permanent capacity in our movement ( Schmidt, 1988 ). Within the context of motor learning, an individual initially practices the target motor task, referred to as the acquisition phase. It is important to understand