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Peter Gröpel and Jürgen Beckmann

Researchers suggests that a pre-performance routine (PPR) can improve performance in competitions. The effectiveness of left-hand contractions, a PPR to trigger facilitative cortical processes for skilled motor performance, was tested in two studies. In Study 1, gymnasts competing at the German university championships in artistic gymnastics performed their routines with or without the PPR. In Study 2, gymnasts performed the balance beam exercise either using the PPR or the control task (right-hand contractions) under simulated competition pressure. The qualification performance (Study 1) and the pressure-free performance (Study 2) were controlled. In both studies, participants in the PPR group performed better than control participants. The results indicate that left-hand contractions may be a useful PPR in the field.

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Christopher Mesagno, Daryl Marchant, and Tony Morris

“Choking under pressure” is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a preperformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three “choking-susceptible”, experienced participants were purposively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = “low-pressure”; B phases = “high-pressure”), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced “choking” in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention.

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in Team Sports Alkisti Olympiou * Sophia Jowett * Joan L. Duda * 12 2008 22 22 4 4 423 423 438 438 10.1123/tsp.22.4.423 A Pre-Performance Routine to Alleviate Choking in “Choking-Susceptible” Athletes Christopher Mesagno * Daryl Marchant * Tony Morris * 12 2008 22 22 4 4 439 439 457 457

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.1123/tsp.2015-0117 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Professional Tennis on the ATP Tour: A Case Study of Mental Skills Support John F. Mathers * 6 2017 31 2 187 198 10.1123/tsp.2016-0012 A Pre-Performance Routine to Optimize Competition Performance in Artistic Gymnastics Peter Gröpel * Jürgen Beckmann * 6 2017

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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse, and Gareth Morgan

identity away from the sport context, which facilitates their ability to work through challenging phases such as injury, deselection, or early retirement more effectively. Synonyms:  • N/A Associated behaviors/outcomes:  • N/A (Pre)performance routines Antecedents:  • N/A Durand-Bush and Salmela ( 2002

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Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Albert J. Petitpas

skilled athletes? Can they help beginners? In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology ( 3rd ed. , pp.  445 – 468 ). New York, NY : Wiley . Lidor , R. ( 2010 ). Pre-performance routines . In S.J. Hanrahan & M.B. Andersen (Eds.), Routledge handbook of applied

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Alex Oliver, Paul J. McCarthy, and Lindsey Burns

research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory ( 3rd ed. ). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage . 10.4135/9781452230153 Cotterill , S.T. , Sanders , R. , & Collins , D. ( 2010 ). Developing effective pre-performance routines in golf: Why don’t we ask the golfer? Journal of Applied

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Georgia Allen, Claire Thornton, and Holly Riby

.J. , Weigand , D.A. , & Baines , D. ( 2006 ). The effect of removing superstitious behavior and introducing a pre‐performance routine on basketball free‐throw performance . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18, 167 – 171 . doi:10.1080/10413200500471343 10.1080/10413200500471343 Giorgi , A

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Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer, and Sam Robertson

. , Sanders , R. , & Collins , D. ( 2010 ). Developing effective pre-performance routines in golf: Why don’t we ask the golfer? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22 , 51 – 64 . doi:10.1080/10413200903403216 10.1080/10413200903403216 Dearnley , C. ( 2005 ). A reflection on the use of semi

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Erika D. Van Dyke, Judy L. Van Raalte, Elizabeth M. Mullin, and Britton W. Brewer

. , & Theodorakis , Y. ( 2007 ). Function and preferences of motivational and instructional self-talk for adolescent basketball players . Athletic Insight, 9 , 19 – 31 . Clowes , H. , & Knowles , Z. ( 2013 ). Exploring the effectiveness of pre-performance routines in elite artistic gymnasts: A mixed