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Nico Hofman, Jac Orie, Marco J.M. Hoozemans, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

Wingate test scores are strongly associated with anaerobic capacity in athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. In speed skating Wingate results are known to predict performance cross-sectionally but have not been investigated relative to their ability to predict performance longitudinally. Purpose: To investigate whether Wingate tests performed during summer training are predictive of 1500-m speed-skating performance the subsequent winter in elite speed skaters. Methods: Wingate test results from the summer training periods and 1500-m performances during the subsequent winter were analyzed over a 3-y period in 5 female and 8 male elite (Olympic, World Championship, and World Cup medalists) speed skaters. Regression analyses using generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to estimate the relationship between Wingate test variables and 1500-m speed-skating performance. Wingate peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) were used to predict 1500-m time and 400-m lap times. Results: Improvements of 1 W/kg on PP and MP in women predict improvements of −0.75 s and −2.05 s, respectively, on 1500-m time (World Record 110.85 s). In men, improvements in PP and MP were associated with performance improvements of −0.92 s and −2.32 s on 1500-m time per 1 W/kg (World Record 101.04 s). Conclusion: Wingate test results achieved during the summer training period are a good predictor of improvements in 1500-m speed-skating performance during the subsequent winter. For the smallest worthwhile improvement in 1500-m performance, a gain in PP and MP of 2.1% and 1.4% (0.38 and 0.14 W/kg) for females and 1.2% and 0.9% (0.29 and 0.12 W/kg) for males is needed.

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Ken R. Lodewyk, Kimberley L. Gammage and Philip J. Sullivan

Increasing dropout rates in senior high school physical education, particularly among females, and unhealthy activity and obesity levels in youth have led to recommendations to assess potential contributing factors in physical education participation. Drawing from gender, body image, and social-cognitive theory, this study investigated relations between body size discrepancy, self-efficacy, test anxiety, and achievement in 316 high school physical education students. Gender differences were noted in body size discrepancy (females reported the desire to have a smaller body). Specifically in females, body size discrepancy predicted test anxiety, which predicted self-efficacy. Self-efficacy predicted achievement in both males and females. The results signal that gender-specific relations among these constructs are important factors to consider in the achievement scores of students in high school physical education. Physical education programs should model curricula and instructional practices that defuse potentially harmful body image discrepancies that seem most poignant in females while engaging all learners to feel competent and safe.

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Daniel A. Keir and Juan M. Murias

different protocols and models affect its determination . J Sci Med Sport . 2018 ; 21 ( 7 ): 742 – 747 . doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.11.015 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.11.015 24. Bishop D , Jenkins DG , Howard A . The critical power function is dependent on the duration of predictive tests chosen . Int J

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield and Juan M. Murias

013e3181d9cf7f 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d9cf7f 19. Bishop D , Jenkins DG , Howard A . The critical power function is dependent on the duration of predictive tests chosen . Int J Sports Med . 1998 ; 19 : 125 – 129 . PubMed ID: 9562222 doi:10.1055/s-2007-971894 9562222 10.1055/s-2007-971894 20

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Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret and François Cury

of Hierarchical Regression Analyses Predicting Test Anxiety Components Worry Self-focus Bodily symptoms Somatic tension Perceived control R 2 β R 2 β R 2 β R 2 β R 2 β Step 1 .102*** .074*** .025** .043*** .107***  Gender a −0.10* −0.14** −0.03 −0.09 0.09* Step 2 .450*** .340*** .196*** .365*** .495