For centuries, the general consensus has been that vigorous, competitive exercise was harmful and shortened life expectancy. Recent data from prospective cohort studies conducted on marathon runners, professional cyclists, and Olympic athletes indicate, however, that regular intense endurance-exercise training has protective benefits against cardiovascular disease and premature death. There are still important questions to be answered, such as what is the optimal dose, in terms of both duration and intensity of training or competition, beyond which the health benefits of regular exercise stabilize or might even potentially disappear.
Jonatan R. Ruiz, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Nuria Garatachea and Alejandro Lucia
Darren J. Burgess and Geraldine A. Naughton
Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.
Philip F. Skiba, David Clarke, Anni Vanhatalo and Andrew M. Jones
Recently, an adaptation to the critical-power (CP) model was published, which permits the calculation of the balance of the work capacity available above the CP remaining (W′bal) at any time during intermittent exercise. As the model is now in use in both amateur and elite sport, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of the W′bal model in the field. Data were collected from the bicycle power meters of 8 trained triathletes. W′bal was calculated and compared between files where subjects reported becoming prematurely exhausted during training or competition and files where the athletes successfully completed a difficult assigned task or race without becoming exhausted. Calculated W′bal was significantly different between the 2 conditions (P < .0001). The mean W′bal at exhaustion was 0.5 ± 1.3 kJ (95% CI = 0–0.9 kJ), whereas the minimum W′bal in the nonexhausted condition was 3.6 ± 2.0 kJ (95% CI = 2.1–4.0 kJ). Receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that the W′bal model is useful for identifying the point at which athletes are in danger of becoming exhausted (area under the ROC curve = .914, SE .05, 95% CI .82–1.0, P < .0001). The W′bal model may therefore represent a useful new development in assessing athlete fatigue state during training and racing.
Dan Benardot, Wes Zimmermann, Gregory R. Cox and Saul Marks
Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3–8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2–1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.
Nicole Reams, Rodney A. Hayward, Jeffrey S. Kutcher and James F. Burke
Lingering neurologic injury after concussion may expose athletes to increased risk if return to play is premature. The authors explored whether on-field performance after concussion is a marker of lingering neurologic injury.
Retrospective cohort study on 1882 skill-position players who played in the National Football League (NFL) during 2007–2010.
Players with concussion based on the weekly injury report were compared with players with other head and neck injuries (controls) on measures of on-field performance using Football Outsiders’ calculation of defense-adjusted yards above replacement (DYAR), a measure of a player’s contribution controlling for game context. Changes in performance, relative to a player’s baseline level of performance, were estimated before and after injury using fixed-effects models.
The study included 140 concussed players and 57 controls. Players with concussion performed no better or worse than their baseline on return to play. However, a decline in DYAR relative to their prior performance was noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report. Concussed players performed slightly better than controls in situations where they returned to play the same week as appearing on the injury report.
On return, concussed NFL players performed at their baseline level of performance, suggesting that players have recovered from concussion. Decline in performance noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report may suggest that concussion diagnosis was delayed or that concussion can be a multihit phenomenon. Athletic performance may be a novel tool for assessing concussion injury and recovery.
commitment in time—could, unfortunately, be factors contributing to premature attrition in many children and adolescents participating in organized sport ( Brenner, 2016 ; Cumming & Ewing, 2002 ; Hardy, Kelly, Chapman, King, & Farrell, 2010 ; Merkel, 2013 ). In The Adulteration of Children’s Sports
Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic and Stuart Goodall
Exercise performance is impaired in hot conditions with fatigue occurring prematurely compared with cool environments. 1 The etiology of this fatigue is complex and multifaceted but is in part attributable to increased thermal sensations (TS; ie, feeling hot) and thermal discomfort. 2 Accordingly
Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin and Kevin I. Norton
SKIBA 2 model has demonstrated progression in the area of modeling intermittent work bouts, the results of our study show that, for elite cyclists, this model significantly underestimates their W ′ recovery rate. Its use in this population would greatly underestimate work capabilities and prematurely
Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga and Kate E. Reed
to be long enough to accommodate the return to metabolic homeostasis. An imbalance between the demands of the work intervals and the recovery potential of the recovery intervals can lead to premature fatigue, which potentially reduces the number of planned intervals, or lowers the work intensity
Amelia Mays Woods and Suzan F. Ayers
teaching, fewer teacher education programs exist to prepare future teachers ( Sawchuk, 2014 ). Additionally, many of those who enter the teaching profession leave prematurely, with more than 41% of teachers exiting the profession within their first 5 years ( Perda, 2013 ). This trend has gradually