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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown

premature mortality. We approached this study of physical activity and premature mortality through the conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH; Solar & Irwin, 2010 ). The CSDH conceptual framework suggests that “social, economic and political mechanisms give rise to a

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

consequences is in a stage of infancy—the focus on intervention research might even be considered premature. The time is ripe for focal inquiry on sedentary behavior in MS and for initiating a new paradigm shift on health-behavior change in this population. References Aminian , S. , Ezeugwu , V.E. , Motl

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Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst and Brendon Stubbs

Background:

Sedentary behavior is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behavior in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

Methods:

Two independent authors searched major databases until August 2016. A random effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results:

Across 6 unique cross-sectional studies, including 9 sedentary levels, there were 523 (292 men) PLWH (age range = 37 to 58 years). PLWH spent 533 min/day (95% CI = 466 to 599) engaging in sedentary behavior. There was a trend (P = .07) for higher levels of sedentary behavior in self-report measures (551 min, 95% CI = 543 to 560, N = 4) than in objective sedentary behavior time (505 min, 95% CI = 498 to 512, N = 3). The time PLWH spend engaging in sedentary behavior is among the highest levels reported in the literature.

Conclusions:

Given that sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of CVD, future lifestyle interventions specifically targeting the prevention of sedentary behavior in PLWH are warranted.

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Daniel M. Landers

It is maintained that a balance among theory testing, applied research, and dissemination, though an ideal goal for sport psychology, is not being achieved because theory testing has not kept pace. To explain the rise and decline of theory testing in sport psychology a historical perspective was used. Whereas sport psychology from 1950-1965 was characterized by empiricism, from 1966-1976 it was characterized by a social analysis approach used to test single theories with novel tasks in a laboratory setting. In contrast to the earlier approaches, it is recommended that contemporary sport psychologists (a) use more meta-analyses to recheck the conclusions of past reviews, (b) become less reliant on a single research method or setting, (c) avoid premature commitments to a theory, and (d) become less enamored with statistically based null hypothesis testing. A number of suggestions are offered and examples provided to encourage, where appropriate, the use of “strong inference,” a more eclectic employment of research methods and settings as well as statistical techniques to determine the strength of observed relationships.

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Paul D. Loprinzi

Objective:

Examine the association between objectively-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and engagement in self-reported muscle strengthening activities (MSA) with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and in turn, how each of these parameters associate with of all-cause mortality.

Methods:

Data from the 2003–2006 NHANES were employed, with follow-up through December 31, 2011 (N = 5030; 20+ yrs). Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry; MSA was assessed via survey; and ALT and GGT were assessed via a blood sample. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used.

Results:

MVPA (βadjusted = 0.15; 95% CI: –0.45 to 0.76; P = .60) was not associated with ALT, but MSA was (β adjusted = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.56 to –0.05; P = .02). With regard to GGT, MSA was not significant (β adjusted = –0.12; 95% CI: –0.71 to 0.47; P = .67), nor was MVPA (β adjusted = –1.10; 95% CI: –2.20 to 0.06; P = .06). Higher ALT levels were associated with increased allcause mortality risk (HRadjusted = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06; P < .001).

Conclusion:

Physical activity is favorably associated with markers of hepatic inflammation, and higher levels of markers of hepatic inflammation are associated with increased mortality risk. These findings suggest that physical activity may help protect against premature mortality through its influence on liver pathology.

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Oscar Mac Ananey, Brendan McLoughlin, Ann Leonard, Lewena Maher, Peter Gaffney, Gerard Boran and Vincent Maher

Background:

Several obesity related factors are reported to exacerbate premature arterial stiffening, including inactivity and metabolic disarray. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity, arterial stiffness and adiposity using objective methods. To further explore the role of adiposity in this complex process, obesity associated anthropometric and humoral biomarkers were measured.

Methods:

Seventy-nine healthy, lifelong nonsmoking subjects were recruited. Habitual physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] was measured using tonometry. Body composition was estimated using bioimpedence. Adipose associated biomarkers, leptin and adiponectin, were also measured.

Results:

Sedentary time was significantly associated with AIx (r = 0.38, P < .001), PWV (r = 0.33, P < .01), body fat composition (r = 0.40, P < .001) and age (r = 0.30, P < .01). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely correlated with AIx (r = –0.28, P < .05), body fat composition (r = –0.30, P < .01), postprandial insulin (r = –0.35, P < .01), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (r = –0.28, P < .05). MVPA, body fat composition, and postprandial insulin remained independent predictors of AIx but not PWV.

Conclusion:

The more time healthy individuals spend being sedentary, the greater their body fat and arterial stiffness. Conversely higher activity levels are associated with reduced body fat and less arterial stiffness.

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Tania Pereira, John Durocher and Jamie Burr

Background: Insufficient physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous chronic diseases and premature mortality, and the challenge of meeting recommended PA guidelines is exacerbated in the winter. Snowmobiling can potentially contribute to PA accumulation, but the objective metabolic and physical demands are unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical demands of riding a snowmobile. Methods: Habitual snowmobile riders responded to a survey describing a typical ride (n = 4015). Using this data, terrain-specific testing courses were created, and recreational snowmobile riders (n = 40) participated in a scaled representative ride (21 [8] min) while aerobic metabolism (VO2) and muscular fatigue were quantified. Results: The mean VO2 while riding, irrespective of terrain, was 18.5 (8.4) mL·kg−1·min−1, with significant differences based on geographic location (13.4 [5.2] vs 25.7 [6.6] mL·kg−1·min−1, P < .001). Muscular fatigue was apparent in maximal handgrip (−7% [8%], P < .001) across both riding terrains, but not lower body power, suggesting a greater influence of an upper body strength component. Conclusions: Snowmobiling is an activity that generally falls within the moderate-intensity activity range and involves both aerobic fitness and muscular strength. There were substantial differences in demand between terrains, suggesting that additional benefits may be conferred from mountain riding as it was more metabolically demanding.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth and Steven P. Hooker

The health-enhancing benefits of regular physical activity have been theorized for thousands of years. Within the past 25 years, public health agencies, health-related organizations, and health-focused foundations have recognized regular physical activity as a major factor in preventing premature morbidity and mortality. Colleges and universities have experienced a paradigm shift in applying public health strategies to prepare graduates in understanding how to reduce the impact of sedentary lifestyles on health outcomes. For nearly 20 years, some kinesiology departments have expanded from traditional curricula to new courses and degrees in promoting physical activity in the community, the application of epidemiology concepts to physical activity, and the study of policy and environmental approaches to promoting physical activity. Given the high prevalence of physical activity insufficient to prevent premature morbidity and mortality, continuing educational efforts are needed to assure kinesiology students have the skills and information needed to promote physical activity in communities to people of all ages and abilities.

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Alex Murata

commitment in time—could, unfortunately, be factors contributing to premature attrition in many children and adolescents participating in organized sport ( Brenner, 2016 ; Cumming & Ewing, 2002 ; Hardy, Kelly, Chapman, King, & Farrell, 2010 ; Merkel, 2013 ). In The Adulteration of Children’s Sports

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Kingsley K. Akinroye and Ade F. Adeniyi

lifestyle among children and youth. According to the World Health Organisation, 2 two-thirds of premature deaths in adults are associated with childhood conditions and behaviours. Such common behaviours including smoking, heavy episodic drinking and physical inactivity are associated with NCD risks, with