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Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz and Dan Nemet

Preterm birth is defined as birth occurring at less than 37 weeks of gestation. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States, and it is estimated that 15 million babies are born prematurely around the world every year. It is well recognized that premature

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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown

premature mortality. We approached this study of physical activity and premature mortality through the conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH; Solar & Irwin, 2010 ). The CSDH conceptual framework suggests that “social, economic and political mechanisms give rise to a

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Elaine Leonezi Guimarães, Andréa Baraldi Cunha, Daniele de Almeida Soares and Eloisa Tudella

The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine and discuss studies that investigated reaching in preterm infants during the first year of life. Databases were searched using keywords such as reaching, grasping, preterm, and premature, in addition to specific terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (motor skills, infant, movement, premature birth, hands) regardless of year of publication. One hundred thirty-five studies were identified, 9 of which were selected. The results showed that preterm infants adopt strategies (bimanual reaches and reaches with less rectilinear trajectories toward an object in motion, reaches with semi-open and open hand, reaches at lower speeds, with increased movement units, and variable postural muscle activity) compared with full-term infants. However, the results on how intrinsic factors (e.g., prematurity) and extrinsic factors (e.g., body position, physical properties of the object) influence early reaching are still limited.

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Ketsia Proulx, Annette Majnemer, Noémi Dahan-Oliel, Barbara Mazer, Line Nadeau, Kathleen Vanier and Désirée B. Maltais

Purpose:

Little is known about the physical activity of adolescents born prematurely. This study aimed to: 1) describe relationships between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adolescents born prematurely and various factors and, 2) compare their MVPA level to guidelines.

Method:

A secondary analysis was performed using data from 64 adolescents (16.1 ± 2.5 years old, born £29 weeks gestation; 57.8% girls). Time spent in MVPA was based on accelerometry data. Sociodemographic, prematurity and comorbidity variables were based on questionnaire data or, for movement difficulty, from the results of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—Second Edition.

Results:

Multiple regression analysis showed that participants who were older (b = -4.52, p < .001), female (b = 14.18, p = .014), with movement difficulty (b = 18.64, p = .014), with health problems (b = 11.78, p = .036) and without hyperactive behavior (trend, b = 2.04, p = .099) spent less time in MVPA. Together these variables explained 44.4% of the variance in MVPA. Most participants (79.7%) did not meet Canadian MVPA guidelines.

Conclusion:

Study results suggest that physical activity interventions should especially target adolescents born prematurely who are older, female, with health problems, and with marked movement difficulties.

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

consequences is in a stage of infancy—the focus on intervention research might even be considered premature. The time is ripe for focal inquiry on sedentary behavior in MS and for initiating a new paradigm shift on health-behavior change in this population. References Aminian , S. , Ezeugwu , V.E. , Motl

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Michael Barker, Ulrich Merz, Minou S. Hertl and Gerhard Heimann

Pulmonary function and exercise performance were evaluated in a cohort of 26 children born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW) and compared to healthy term controls (age 8-14 years). Children with a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had slightly lower lung resting function than those without BPD or controls. Oxygen uptake kinetics in the aerobic range were similar in all three groups. With incremental exercise, however, preterm children with and without BPD demonstrated ventilatory limitation with significantly lower peak work rates. A closer pulmonary follow-up including an exercise test may thus appear warranted after preterm delivery at VLBW.

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Jonatan R. Ruiz, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Nuria Garatachea and Alejandro Lucia

For centuries, the general consensus has been that vigorous, competitive exercise was harmful and shortened life expectancy. Recent data from prospective cohort studies conducted on marathon runners, professional cyclists, and Olympic athletes indicate, however, that regular intense endurance-exercise training has protective benefits against cardiovascular disease and premature death. There are still important questions to be answered, such as what is the optimal dose, in terms of both duration and intensity of training or competition, beyond which the health benefits of regular exercise stabilize or might even potentially disappear.

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Stephen P. Sayers

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disease affecting muscle fiber integrity in boys that leads to progressive weakness in skeletal muscle and premature death. Currently, there is no known cure for the disease. Different interventions have been explored to delay the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life for the DMD patient. Physical activity is one treatment that has generated controversy due to the increased mechanical stress placed on the muscle during contraction. This review explores the literature in animal models and human DMD patients and evaluates the known theoretical risks and benefits of increased physical activity in DMD patients.

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Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst and Brendon Stubbs

Background:

Sedentary behavior is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behavior in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

Methods:

Two independent authors searched major databases until August 2016. A random effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results:

Across 6 unique cross-sectional studies, including 9 sedentary levels, there were 523 (292 men) PLWH (age range = 37 to 58 years). PLWH spent 533 min/day (95% CI = 466 to 599) engaging in sedentary behavior. There was a trend (P = .07) for higher levels of sedentary behavior in self-report measures (551 min, 95% CI = 543 to 560, N = 4) than in objective sedentary behavior time (505 min, 95% CI = 498 to 512, N = 3). The time PLWH spend engaging in sedentary behavior is among the highest levels reported in the literature.

Conclusions:

Given that sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of CVD, future lifestyle interventions specifically targeting the prevention of sedentary behavior in PLWH are warranted.

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Barbara N. Campaigne, Kyle W. Landt, Frederick W. James, Joan Reimar, Wayne Mays and Mark A. Sperling

Systolic time intervals (STI) were measured before and after exercise in 18 diabetic adolescents (D) and 18 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic controls (C). At similar heart rates, pre-exercise pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were significantly shorter in D compared to C (p<0.05). There was no difference between the two groups in the PEP/LVET ratio. Following exercise there were no differences in STIs between groups. However, the change in PEP and LVET from pre- to postexercise was significantly less in D compared to C (delta PEP 38 vs. 53±3 msec, p<0.01; delta LVET 120 vs. 134±4 msec, p<0.05). These data suggest a hypercontractile state at rest in D and a blunted response to exercise when compared to C. This study provides data that may be relevant to the early identification of individuals at risk for premature diabetic cardiomyopathy.