; Messner & Musto, 2014 ; Qvortrup et al., 2009 ), we evaluate three possible mechanisms behind the gendering of taste that receive increasing attention in sports sociology: gender identity, pressure to conform to gender stereotypes and gender role attitudes ( Boiché, Plaza, Chalabaev, Guillet
Susan Lagaert, Mieke Van Houtte and Henk Roose
Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel
Figure skaters are evaluated on the execution of challenging technical skills as well as how those skills are packaged with other performance components, including costume, music, choreography, and physical appearance ( Cummins, 2007 ). Male and female skaters report experiencing pressure from a
Larry J. Weber, Thomas M. Sherman and Carmen Tegano
In this research, faculty reported attempts to influence their academic decisions regarding student athletes. In most instances the pressure was not formal or frequently applied, and it appeared to have little influence on faculty judgments or their willingness to assist athletes. Except for isolated situations of a flagrant nature that are sensationalized by the media, the problem seems not to be a major one.
Tim Berrett and Trevor Slack
Sport sponsorship is frequently described as a strategic activity, and thus, it is influenced by both competitive and institutional forces. Using a sample of 28 Canadian companies, this study explores the influence of competitive and institutional pressures on those individuals who make decisions about their company's sport sponsorship initiatives. The results show that the sponsorship activities of rival companies were influential in a company's sponsorship choices. This was particularly the case in highly concentrated industries. We also show some evidence of a first-mover advantage in sponsorship decision-making but found preemptive strategies to yield little competitive advantage. In addition to these pressures from the competitive environment, institutional pressures from companies in the same geographic area, in the form of mimetic activity, in the form of involvement in social networks, and through the occupational training of the decision makers—all played a role in the choices made about what activities to sponsor.
Michael L. Silk and John Amis
The analysis of televised sport production has largely ignored the conditions that frame cultural production and the ways in which broadcasts are constructed. Rather, scholarly discussions of televised sport production have been based on the text that goes to air. Given substantial realignments in political, economic, and cultural spheres brought about by the proliferation of a global media, it is argued that a textual perspective is inadequate if a thorough understanding of the complexities of televised sport production is to be attained. Rather, to appreciate the intricacies involved in cultural (re)production, scholars need to address the ways in which interactions among influential actors impact the process of reproducing sport for television. This paper investigates the conditions of production and the labor processes involved in reproducing a major sporting event. Using ethnographic data collected at the 1998 Kuala Lumpur Commonwealth Games in Malaysia, the ways in which micro and macro institutional processes interacted to frame the reproduction of the Games are assessed and discussed.
Lyndsay M.C. Hayhurst, Lisa McIntosh Sundstrom and Emma Arksey
described how specific measurement tools culminated in some pressure to subscribe to, and uphold, the management of these interventions in very particular ways. For example, Staff Member 5 noted how the Curriculum only measured activities on a yearly basis instead of on a more long-term approach, such as
Justine J. Reel, Katherine M. Jamieson, Sonya SooHoo and Diane L. Gill
Dancers, like other athletes and performers, are faced with the pressure to obtain a particular body shape and size that stems from varied etiological factors (e.g., personality characteristics, demands of the dance environment) (Robson, 2002). This study examined specific concerns for college dancers by utilizing quantitative and qualitative forms of inquiry. The purpose of the initial phase was to assess weight-related pressures, social physique anxiety, and disordered eating in college female modern dancers (N=107) using the Weight Pressure in Dance (Reel & Gill, 1996), Social Physique Anxiety Scale (Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989), and The Eating Disorder Inventory (Garner, 1991). An overwhelming majority (76%) of the dancers reported pressures to lose weight with the most commonly cited stressor being the mirror followed by costumes, performance advantage, comparison to other dancers, and landing the best roles. The mean social physique anxiety score was moderate, but 35 dancers exhibited a high degree of social physique anxiety. In addition, the dancers had a lower tendency toward disordered eating compared to college females (Garner, 1991). The second phase of the study confirmed that modern dancers experience unique pressures. Through qualitative inquiry, the participants’ individualized experiences related to body image and the culture of modern dance could be shared.
March L. Krotee
The South African government’s socially based policy of segregation and discrimination, or “apartheid,” has caused tremendous external, as well as internal, pressures to reverse the government’s inhumane treatment of its repressed populace. Until recently none of the pressures have been more forceful than those evoked by the sporting world and the United Nations. Since 1960, these forces have served to isolate South Africa from most international sports competitions, including the Olympic Games. At one juncture, various leanings in apartheid policy seemed to point toward a tilt in attitudinal posture not only in regard to sport but to various related apartheid conduct. Recent events, however, have elucidated a continued dominant posture concerning South Africa’s all-encompassing socially repressive apartheid practice. It appears that, unless the South African government initiates swift and salient apartheid expiration, the perilous game they are playing may get out of hand.
John J. Sewart
This paper defends the amateur ideal of athletics. It suggests that the hypocrisy which surrounds the amateur ideal is not due to a fault in the ideal itself, but is rather a symptom of commercial pressures upon sport. The defense of the amateur ideal does not necessarily involve a return to aristocratic privileges. The amateurist vision of “pure sport’ ’ provides a worthy ideal embodying the true meaning of sport as an end in itself. The paper shows the fate of amateurism in a market society to be one of betrayal of the utopian and emancipatory potential of sport.
Tracy Everbach and Jenny Mumah
This study analyzed the reactions of college women athletes to mass media images of nude and scantily clad professional female athletes. The study focused on interviews of 18- to 22-year-old female athletes about the pressure on women to pose for sexualized photographs. Using a feminist framework, the study found that some of the college athletes rejected socially constructed concepts of femininity, others criticized the professional athletes for posing, and others accepted socially constructed standards of beauty. This research suggests that young women athletes are conflicted by the images of femininity presented by mass media and react in complex ways to them.