Sport sponsorship is frequently described as a strategic activity, and thus, it is influenced by both competitive and institutional forces. Using a sample of 28 Canadian companies, this study explores the influence of competitive and institutional pressures on those individuals who make decisions about their company's sport sponsorship initiatives. The results show that the sponsorship activities of rival companies were influential in a company's sponsorship choices. This was particularly the case in highly concentrated industries. We also show some evidence of a first-mover advantage in sponsorship decision-making but found preemptive strategies to yield little competitive advantage. In addition to these pressures from the competitive environment, institutional pressures from companies in the same geographic area, in the form of mimetic activity, in the form of involvement in social networks, and through the occupational training of the decision makers—all played a role in the choices made about what activities to sponsor.
Tim Berrett and Trevor Slack
Michael L. Silk and John Amis
The analysis of televised sport production has largely ignored the conditions that frame cultural production and the ways in which broadcasts are constructed. Rather, scholarly discussions of televised sport production have been based on the text that goes to air. Given substantial realignments in political, economic, and cultural spheres brought about by the proliferation of a global media, it is argued that a textual perspective is inadequate if a thorough understanding of the complexities of televised sport production is to be attained. Rather, to appreciate the intricacies involved in cultural (re)production, scholars need to address the ways in which interactions among influential actors impact the process of reproducing sport for television. This paper investigates the conditions of production and the labor processes involved in reproducing a major sporting event. Using ethnographic data collected at the 1998 Kuala Lumpur Commonwealth Games in Malaysia, the ways in which micro and macro institutional processes interacted to frame the reproduction of the Games are assessed and discussed.
Chris Barnhill and Mauro Palmero
Wisconsin State University (WSU) is on the verge of receiving an invitation to join the Mid-Atlantic Conference (a conference with Football Bowl Subdivision [FBS] status). To successfully transition to FBS, WSU needs its students to approve a fee increase to offset the additional costs. Alex Pence, the assistant director of marketing, has been placed in charge of developing a marketing plan to influence students to support the fee increase. Unfortunately for Pence, WSU students have a history of opposing fees for athletics. With pressure from the school’s administration, Pence must figure out how create support for the move while balancing the ethical and political pressures he is facing.
Nels Popp, Terry Eddy and Chad McEvoy
In this case study, readers are placed in the role of a National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division I Athletics Director and challenged to consider the issue of selling the corporate naming rights to the department’s premier on-campus sports venue. Readers are exposed to a myriad of issues impacting such a decision and must weigh out such factors as: (a) the appropriateness of corporate commercialization in college athletics, (b) the pressure to balance a tight athletic department budget, (c) the impact of changing a facility name which holds significant nostalgic value to the fan base, (d) what type of sponsors might be an appropriate fit for a corporate naming rights sponsorship, and (e) what are the current trends among sport facility naming rights within college athletics. The case study is supported by many scholarly research citations but also includes important appendices, including a database of 44 current college athletic facility naming rights deals, populated with key variables. This database will assist readers in the difficult process of attempting to value naming rights for a fictional facility depicted in the case study.
Daniel Wigfield and Ryan Snelgrove
In March 2017, responding to a pressure to improve athlete development and enjoyment, Hockey Canada moved to change how youth are introduced to hockey by mandating the implementation of a cross-ice development program for its entry-level participants. The mandate of cross-ice programming was to ensure that all 75,000 entry-level participants received increased touches of the puck on an appropriately sized playing surface; thus, heightening their spatial awareness and foundational skills necessary to enjoyably move forward in hockey. As is common for many sport organizations, the proposed programming changes were met with resistance by some stakeholders. Surprisingly, the resistance to the programming changes evolved into a much-publicized intergroup conflict within Hockey Canada’s largest market. The dispute could not be resolved in time for the beginning of the 2017–2018 season. As a result, the defiant local leagues were granted a one-year reprieve from implementing cross-ice programming. With only a one-year reprieve granted, Hockey Canada must now determine the appropriate steps to fully implement their desired programming change and ensure that resistance-based conflicts are limited in the future.
Jamee A. Pelcher and Brian P. McCullough
will need to respond to the pressures from stakeholders (i.e., President Williams, Eco-Team, student body) by becoming more environmentally responsible. With each new sustainable program that is initiated on SU’s campus, students expect the same level of commitment from the Athletic Department. To this
Allison Manwell, James Johnson and Khirey Walker
experience and the football field. After the initial academic setbacks, and with pressure from his teammates, John’s attitude began to change. “As long as I do enough to stay eligible, I don’t really care what my grades are,” he thought. “I am here to play football, after all. Nobody cares about my grades as
Jules Woolf, Jess C. Dixon, B. Christine Green and Patrick J. Hill
competitiveness in Canadian university sport in recent years. When Jacobs interviewed Victor Landry, the Marketing and Sponsorship Manager, Landry said: Things have got more and more competitive. There’s more and more pressure to continue to keep up with the Joneses. If you look across the country at other
Jules Woolf and Jess C. Dixon
.S. foreign policy decisions. Groupthink represents a situation where groups make inferior decisions due to a host of factors, such as pressure to conform, an overestimation of the group’s ability, and close-mindedness. Groups are often relied upon to improve decision making on the basis that two (or more
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin
. .832 RapeMyth7—After a rape, women nowadays receive ample support. .732 RapeMyth30—Nowadays, men who really sexually assault women are punished justly. .653 RapeMyth21—A man’s sexuality functions like a steam boiler—when the pressure gets too high, he has to “let off steam.” .969 RapeMyth