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Lee J. Moore, Samuel J. Vine, Mark R. Wilson and Paul Freeman

Competitive situations often hinge on one pressurized moment. In these situations, individuals’ psychophysiological states determine performance, with a challenge state associated with better performance than a threat state. But what can be done if an individual experiences a threat state? This study examined one potential solution: arousal reappraisal. Fifty participants received either arousal reappraisal or control instructions before performing a pressurized, single-trial, motor task. Although both groups initially displayed cardiovascular responses consistent with a threat state, the reappraisal group displayed a cardiovascular response more reflective of a challenge state (relatively higher cardiac output and/or lower total peripheral resistance) after the reappraisal manipulation. Furthermore, despite performing similarly at baseline, the reappraisal group outperformed the control group during the pressurized task. The results demonstrate that encouraging individuals to interpret heightened physiological arousal as a tool that can help maximize performance can result in more adaptive cardiovascular responses and motor performance under pressure.

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman

limited portion of daily activities for the majority of people. Making decisions and responses based on ever-changing stimuli in our environment occupies an arguably larger portion of day-to-day life ( Gorgulu, 2017 ). Moreover, time pressures inherent in reactive tasks likely present an additional load

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Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima

. 7 In this direction, foot disorders may explain the association between obesity and falls in older people. Indeed, previous evidence has confirmed that obesity negatively affects foot function, in which obese adults have been found to generate significantly higher plantar pressure during walking

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith and Louis Passfield

perfectionism in sport, however, are less clear. Theoretical accounts of the development of perfectionism identify parental pressure to be perfect as one origin of perfectionism ( Flett, Hewitt, Oliver, & Macdonald, 2002 ). More recently, in the domain of sport, these accounts have been extended to include

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Heather Hayes Betz, Joey C. Eisenmann, Kelly R. Laurson, Katrina D. DuBose, Mathew J. Reeves, Joseph J. Carlson and Karin A. Pfeiffer

The development of atherosclerotic plaque as a precursor of cardiovascular disease has been well established ( 40 ), and autopsy studies ( 25 , 29 ) have shown this process begins during childhood. Blood pressure is a recognized causal risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, and

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Susanne Fuchs, Guido Schuette, Hartmut Witte, and Carsten Oliver Tibesku

A new design of total knee prosthesis without anterior patellar flange was developed to preserve the anatomical shape of the patellofemoral joint. The aim of the current study was to experimentally compare patellofemoral contact area and pressure in a nonreplaced knee, in a knee after implantation of a conventionally designed total knee arthroplasty, and in a knee after implantation of the newly designed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange. Six cadaveric legs were examined before and after implantation of either a conventional or a newly developed total knee arthroplasty, both without patellar replacement. The essential change in design is the absence of an anterior patellar flange. Contact area and pressure were measured using pressure sensitive films in 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion and the results were compared between the different prosthesis designs and with the nonreplaced knee. The prosthesis without patellar flange showed less average and maximum pressure than the conventional prosthesis. Compared with the nonreplaced knee, the conventional prosthesis led to increased average and maximum pressure and decreased contact area. In an experimental test setup, the newly developed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange showed reduced patello-femoral contact pressure in comparison with a total knee prosthesis with conventional patellofemoral design. This could possibly lead to a lower incidence of anterior knee complaints in patients.

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Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews and Scott Fleming

This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.

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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

BFR promotes increases in muscle mass and strength to a similar extent as traditional high-load training. 1 – 3 Besides cuff width 4 – 6 and the duration of BFR, 7 cuff pressure intensity is considered to be one of the most important determinants for optimal training adaptations 8 , 9 with both

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Emma Weston, Matthew Nagy, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block and Rebecca E. Hasson

, thickening of the carotid vessel wall, and even subtle changes in cognition, are detectable in children with increased blood pressure (BP) ( 18 ). More importantly, cardiovascular risk factors track from childhood to adulthood, hence developing more effective strategies to reduce hypertension has both

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Rob Gray, Anders Orn and Tim Woodman

Introduction There have been several different theories proposed to explain pressure-induced failures/errors in performance (reviewed in Beilock & Gray, 2007 ). While numerous researchers have attempted to test the proposed causal links between pressure, anxiety, and performance in these theories