( Rice, Peters, Rice, & Jan, 2018 ). Consequently, adapted athletes may be at an increased risk for experiencing elevated interface pressures and shears, which relate to skin breakdown and pressure ulcers (PU; Cooper & De Luigi, 2014 ). PU are soft tissue injuries to the skin and underlying tissue at
Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker and David L. Nichols
environment, buoyancy, hydrodynamic resistance, and hydrostatic pressure are all experienced by the individual ( Pendergast, Moon, Krasney, Held, & Zamparo, 2015 ). Buoyancy has an unloading effect on the body joints submerged in the water, reducing the effect of gravity and compressive forces ( Pendergast et
Christopher C. Draheim, Daniel P. Williams and Jeffrey A. McCubbin
The purpose of the study is to determine whether cardiovascular disease risk factor differences exist between Active Special Olympians, Inactive Non-Special Olympians, and Active Non-Special Olympians. Resting blood pressure, total and abdominal body fat, fasting cholesterol profiles, and fasting insulin were measured in 145 (72 women, 73 men) adults with mild mental retardation. Active Special Olympians (n = 45) possessed lower diastolic blood pressures, body fat percentages, abdominal fat, triglycerides, and insulin than Inactive Non-Special Olympians (n = 38) and possessed lower body fat percentages than Active Non-Special Olympians (n = 62). Active Non-Special Olympians possessed lower triglycerides and insulin than Inactive Non-Special Olympians. Future prospective trials are needed to determine whether Special Olympics participation may be one effective component of community-based physical activity programs aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease risk.
Iva Obrusnikova, Martin Block and Suzanna Dillon
Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used to elicit salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs of children without disabilities toward playing with a hypothetical peer with a disability in general physical education. Participants were 350 elementary and middle school students who completed two questionnaires. Questionnaires were assessed for content validity. Participants provided more affective (68%) than instrumental (32%) responses for favorable behavioral beliefs and more instrumental (76%) than affective (24%) responses for unfavorable beliefs. Peer social pressure was prevalent in favorable (69%) and unfavorable (99%) responses. Social pressure significantly varied across five grades, χ2(4, N = 448) = 40.51, p < .01. Participants responded many factors in the class would positively (76%) or negatively (89%) influence the behavior.
Howard L. Nixon II
Efforts to integrate and exclude disabled people in mainstream settings raise questions about the appropriateness of integration. This paper explores problematic aspects of the integration of disabled and able-bodied people in the mainstream, and structural conditions affecting the quality of such integration. In particular, it uses a case study of a partially sighted boy’s experiences in different mainstream sport settings to show how integration efforts can be complicated by the ambiguity of an invisible impairment, by the pressures on disabled persons and their families to ignore or deny impairment and disability, and by a mismatching of structural aspects of sports and the abilities of participants with disabilities.
Richard Frazee, Denis Brunt and Robert F. Castle
This paper describes the exercise tolerance of a young girl with a congenital heart defect associated with asplenia syndrome. The child was exercised minimally on a treadmill for a period of 10 minutes, during which time heart rate, blood pressure, ECG, and transcutaneous PO2 values were monitored. Due to a small increase in heart rate and a very low PO2 during exercise, it was suggested that some adaptive mechanism had been developed to counteract her cyanotic condition. An optimal increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels supported this. No ECG abnormalities were noted. It was concluded that this child should have some, but minimal, involvement in physical education programs despite the severity of her condition.
Kimberly Long, Shawn Meredith and Gerald W. Bell
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), which occurs in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) above T-6, is caused by an exaggerated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to a noxious stimulus. Blood pressure (BP) elevation is a chief symptom of acute AD; this rise in BP makes AD potentially life threatening. Autonomic dysreflexia is also referred to as autonomic hyperreflexia. For this discussion, autonomic dysreflexia will be the term used. It is estimated that approximately 90% of competitive athletes with quadriplegia have intentionally induced AD in order to enhance performance (Burnham et al., 1994). This practice, which is called “boosting,” appears to be an effective, but potentially dangerous, performance enhancement technique. Individuals who work with athletes with SCI above T-6 should be aware of the symptoms, dangers, and treatment of AD, as well as the practice of boosting in order to ensure the safety of these athletes.
Bradley J. Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inactive older adults’ physical activity readiness (based on the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire [PARQ]) and several biometric, demographic, and physical activity indices. Participants were 181 (91 female, 90 male) inactive 60- to 89-year-old adults (M age = 70.2 ± 6.6 yr.). Self-report measures were completed and body mass index (BMI) and VO2max were estimated. BMI, weight, and VO2max were significantly associated with physical activity readiness. There was no significant association among 10-year age cohort and physical activity readiness. The blood pressure question excluded the largest number of participants (42%). Overall, 45.3% of the participants appeared to be healthy enough to begin a low to moderate physical activity program. Preliminary evidence suggests the PARQ may be a useful method of identifying older adults for whom low to moderate physical activity participation is safe.
Roy J. Shephard
Autonomic dysreflexia is a common response to painful stimuli following high level spinal injuries. Loss of normal control of sympathetic reflexes leads to large increases in blood pressure, accompanied by headache and occasional more dangerous sequelae. Although now officially banned, intentional dysreflexia ("boosting") is still exploited by some competitors to gain an unfair advantage. It is thus important to consider physiological mechanisms, consequences for health and performance, and methods of controlling this abuse. Boosters perceive the practice as frequent, performance enhancing, and of low immediate risk. Effective methods of eliminating the practice may include more stringent control of competitors, evaluating and publicizing short-and long-term risks, and countering arguments that boosting is an ethically acceptable method of restoring a normal physiological response.
Nicolas Vuillerme, Ludovic Marin and Bettina Debû
This study evaluated stance control in 24 teenagers with and without Down syndrome (DS) by (a) assessing center of foot pressure variables under different conditions of availability of visual and somatosensory inputs and (b) analyzing postural perturbation and adaptation following abrupt changes in visual information. Results showed no gender-related differences in either group. Group comparison revealed similar strategies in adolescents with and without DS, although quantitative differences may exist in the ability to integrate sensory inputs to control stance. Adaptation to changing environmental conditions varied greatly from one individual to another in the two groups. Finally, comparison of the two experiments suggests that the increased postural oscillations reported for the sample with DS on long lasting recordings could be related to insufficient allocation of cognitive resources in stable environments.