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Kevin Patton, Melissa Parker and Erica Pratt

The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogy of facilitation within physical education professional development (PD). Specific research questions were: 1) What were the self-identified pedagogical strategies employed by facilitators in PD?, and 2) From the perspective of the participants, what strategies contributed to their growth as learners? Participants included fifteen PD facilitators and 88 teachers from eight selected professional learning communities in the U.S. and Europe. Data sources included interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three participant-centered pedagogical strategies reflected facilitators’ methods and teachers’ perceptions: (a) learning as doing: providing structure without dictating, (b) learning as trying: creating and testing new ideas, and (c) learning as sharing: public presentation of work. By teaching without telling, purposeful facilitator actions contributed to the development of an environment that encouraged teachers to become active participants in the creation of knowledge and development of professional capital.

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Robert Daniel Michael, Collin Webster, Debra Patterson, Patricia Laguna and Clay Sherman

Purpose:

This study examined California middle school physical education teachers’ (grades 6–8) use of assessments based on state standards to grade their students.

Methods:

An electronic survey was used to collect data.

Results:

Of the 309 teachers surveyed, 74% based their assessments on the state physical education standards. Teachers who used standards-based assessments were more prone to assigning higher percentages of students’ grades to achievement-based assessments (e.g., skills testing, fitness, standards competency) than teachers who did not use standards-based assessments. However, all teachers gave similar weightings to administrative-based assessments (e.g., dressing out appropriately). Most of the teachers (91.2%) who reported not using standards-based assessments had limited to no professional development pertaining to the standards and perceived this as the biggest challenge to using standards-based assessments.

Discussion/Conclusions:

This study shows that professional development may be an important factor in teachers’ use of standards-based assessments and achievement-focused grading in middle school physical education.

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan

implementation can be mitigated via effective professional development programs ( Hunzicker, 2011 ). Professional Development Programs In teaching and education, professional development programs provide feasible opportunities for teachers to develop and refine high-quality teaching practice in an ever

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Hayley Morrison and Doug Gleddie

assume that professional development (PD)—a provision method used to mitigate challenges that practitioners 1 face in their teaching and assist their understanding about specific processes, concepts, or subject matter ( Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995 )—would be provided to practitioners instructing

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Charlotte Woodcock, Hugh Richards and Angus Mugford

The aim of the study was to examine and reflect on the learning experiences of a neophyte sport psychologist. Over a 9-week applied internship the first author kept a reflective diary that followed Boud’s (2001) three elements of journal writing. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003) of the data identified 11 themes from the diary, 8 of which were contextualized in 3 self-narrative accounts, including the working environment, anxiety, confidence, being a performer, being a learner, relationships, feedback and practical content. Reflecting on these incidents the neophyte’s supervisor offers another perspective, and along with the narrative accounts, furthers our understanding of important factors, and indicates recommendations to ensure quality training for professional development.

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Nathan Hall, Brent Bradford, José da Costa and Daniel B. Robinson

, professional development) influence their perceptions and behaviors with respect to AEAs? and (b) What do PE teachers believe are the biggest barriers with respect to AEAs? Methods This quantitative cross-sectional study was exploratory and descriptive in nature. Descriptive or exploratory studies are commonly

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Kathleen M. Armour and Martin Yelling

This paper reports data from the third phase of a 2-year investigation into continuing professional development (CPD) for physical education teachers in England. The purpose of this phase was to examine the ways in which 10 case study teachers engaged in professional learning over the course of 1 academic year. Data were collected from a series of individual interviews with the teachers, learning diaries, field notes, and a final focus group interview. The findings suggest that these teachers identified CPD as “going on a course,” but, in reality, they learned in a variety of ways. The most striking finding was the high value they placed on learning informally (yet strategically) with and from each other. We argue, therefore, that the traditional relationship between teachers and CPD provision needs to be altered such that teachers in their professional learning communities or networks play a leading role.

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Okseon Lee and Euichang Choi

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers’ implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data were collected from interviews with the teachers and students, observations, and teachers’ reflective journal entries. The findings revealed that PD enhanced the fidelity of implementation in terms of improving structural adherence, facilitating coherent instructional delivery, and making the students more active and responsible. The PD also helped the teachers to adapt the model by developing cultural differentiation strategies, modifying existing components, and extending the implementation of the TPSR through connection with other subjects or activities. The teachers found that the PD facilitated their implementation of TPSR by giving them common goals, empowering them as creators of knowledge, and providing a continuous and authentic learning experience.

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Michael Hodges, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Chong Lee and Ja Youn Kwon

Students of all ages have documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). However, improving students HRFK may require a change in teacher practices and professional development (PD).

Purpose:

This study, framed by Guskey’s Model of Teacher Change (GMTC; Guskey, 2002), sought to assist teachers’ HRFK instruction as part of their physical education curriculum and practices. Initially, researchers examined: (a) teachers’ perceptions of health-related fitness knowledge instruction, followed by, (b) selected teachers’ perceptions of the professional development (PD) methods and the approach to teaching HRFK.

Method:

Semistructured interviews were conducted among elementary physical education teachers’ (N = 9) in one suburban school district. A randomly selected smaller group of teachers (n = 5), had PD on Knowledge in Action Lesson Segments (KIALS), an approach to teaching HRFK. Teachers were asked to implement KIALS into their fifth grade physical education classes and interviewed two additional times.

Results:

Three themes emerged from the data: (a) HRFK is critical but I can’t get to it; (b) If you show it, they will implement it; and (c) Knowledge in Action gets the job done.

Conclusion:

PD procedures in this study and KIALS were seen as favorable. Results paralleled GMTC principles, as researchers confirmed quality PD, and observations of positive student outcomes further reinforced teachers’ beliefs. Teachers also expressed a willingness to continue using KIALS after the completion of this study, concluding achievement of the final fourth principal of the change process. Findings suggested that KIALS, if presented with similar PD will be well-received by teachers supporting their efforts to improve student HRFK outcomes.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate McCaughtry, Pamela Kulinna, Donetta Cothran and Roberta Faust

The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of mentoring-based professional development on physical education teachers’ efficacy. Experienced mentor teachers were paired (n = 15) with inexperienced protégé teachers (n = 15) at the beginning of a yearlong intervention study. It was hypothesized that teachers would increase their efficacy to use pedometers and computers to enhance instruction, and reduce their computer anxiety. Repeated-measures ANOVAs for mentors and protégés revealed a variety of significant main effects. We found increases in computer and pedometer efficacy. A second set of repeated-measures ANOVAs based on mentors’, protégés’, and control groups’ scores revealed a significant interaction for computer efficacy, indicating that both mentors and protégés significantly increased their computer efficacy compared with the control group. Finally, a significant interaction effect was also found for pedometer efficacy, again indicating that both groups significantly increased their efficacy compared with control teachers.