Nutritional supplements (NS) are defined as concentrated sources of nutrients and other substances that have a nutritional or physiological effect and that are used in high frequency among athletes. The study aimed to create a prediction profile for young elite athletes to identify those athletes who have a higher relative risk for using NS. The second objective was to examine the hypothesis that the consumption of NS paves a gateway for the use of illicit drugs and doping substances. A self-designed anonymous paper-and-pencil questionnaire was used to examine the prevalence of NS consumption, doping, and illicit drug use in elite athletes with a mean age of 17 years (SD = 4 years). Logistic regression analysis was employed to assess whether NS consumption can be predicted by independent variables (e.g., biographical data, training characteristics, drug consumption behavior) to create the prediction profile for NS use. 55% and 5% of the athletes (n = 536) responded positively to having used NS and illicit drugs, respectively. Nutritional supplement consumption was positively correlated with age (OR: 1.92; CI: 1.21 to 3.05), the desire to enhance performance to become an Olympic or World Champion (OR: 3.72; CI: 2.33 to 6.01), and being educated about NS (OR: 2.76; CI: 1.73 to 4.45). It was negatively correlated with training frequency (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.35 to 0.86) and the use of nicotine (OR: 0.29; CI: 0.1 to 0.74) but did not correlate with illicit drug use and alcohol consumption. The present results show that NS are used on a large scale in elite sports. The prediction profile presented in this article may help to identify those athletes who have a high risk for using NS to plan potential education and prevention models more individually.
Pavel Dietz, Rolf Ulrich, Andreas Niess, Raymond Best, Perikles Simon and Heiko Striegel
Patrick Ward, Johann Windt and Thomas Kempton
arise in the high-pressure daily training environment. Basic dashboards and reports underpinned by heuristics may be most effective in this area. 9 The slow approach more closely reflects critical scientific inquiry—leading to higher order understanding of the problems faced in the professional sports
Julie Burns and Lynn Dugan
For many professional sports, nutrition is not recognized as an important component of the team's training program. The implementation of a nutrition program for one professional hockey team has had positive results. Players who had been unable to maintain their weight during the season can now maintain their weight and be prepared for the playoffs. Others have improved their endurance with proper fluid and carbohydrate replacement. Working with the entire time—coaching staff, trainers and players—has led to the success of this program.
Lawrence E. Armstrong, Evan C. Johnson, Amy L. McKenzie, Lindsay A. Ellis and Keith H. Williamson
This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p < .001) than men in height (166 ± 5 vs. 179 ± 7 cm), body mass (64.6 ± 7.3 vs. 86.4 ± 12.3 kg), and body mass index (BMI; 23.3 ± 1.8 vs. 26.9 ± 3.4) and had lower preevent urinary indices of hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (−0.7 ± 1.0 vs. −1.7 ± 1.5 kg; −1.1 ± 1.6% vs. −1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p < .005) and consumed less fluid than men (4.80 ± 1.28 L vs. 5.59 ± 2.13 L; p < .005). Women consumed a similar volume of fluid as men, relative to body mass (milliliters/kilogram). To control for performance and anthropomorphic characteristics, 15 women were pair-matched with 15 men on the basis of exercise time on the course and BMI; urine-specific gravity, urine color, and body mass change (kilograms and percentage) were different (p < .05) in 4 of 6 comparisons. No gender differences were observed for ratings of thirst, thermal sensation, or perceived exertion. In conclusion, differences in relative fluid volume consumed and hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise.
Shaun C. Tyrance, Henry L. Harris and Phyllis Post
This study examined the relationship between athletic identity, race, gender, sport, and expectation to play professionally and career planning attitudes (career optimism, career adaptability, and career knowledge) among NCAA Division I college student-athletes. Participants of this study consisted of 538 Division I student-athletes from four Bowl Championship Series institutions. Results of this study found that Division I student-athletes with higher athletic identities had lower levels of career optimism; Division I student-athletes who participated in revenue-producing sports had lower levels of career optimism; and student-athletes with a higher expectation to play professional sports were more likely to be optimistic regarding their future career and displayed higher athletic identities. Statistically significant findings indicated the following gender differences: male Division I student-athletes believed they had a better understanding of the job market and employment trends; males had more career optimism; and females had higher levels of athletic identity than their male counterparts. Implications for counseling student-athletes are addressed.
Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts
exists around the application of GPS technology in other professional sports. 12 Use of Information and Health-Related Research In relation to research involving players, the NBA CBA states that the authorized academic researchers can access data (on a deidentified basis) and conduct studies designed to
Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson
behind this challenging factor and can be addressed with sleep hygiene strategies (see below). Travel and Jet Lag Given the competition demands of most professional sports, regular short-haul (domestic) and long-haul (international) travel is a necessity. While competition itself is a factor in disturbed
Irineu Loturco, Timothy Suchomel, Chris Bishop, Ronaldo Kobal, Lucas A. Pereira and Michael McGuigan
), practitioners can use mean power, mean propulsive power, or peak power to estimate and define the optimum power zones, in both JS and HS exercises. Practical Applications Frequent monitoring of athletes’ performance is essential in professional sports, serving as a basis for adjusting training loads and methods
Brendan H. Lazarus, William G. Hopkins, Andrew M. Stewart and Robert J. Aughey
. Sports Sci . 2013 ; 26 : 1 – 4 . 30. Smith DR , Ciacciarelli A , Serzan J , Lambert D . Travel and the home advantage in professional sports . Sociol Sport J . 2000 ; 17 : 364 – 385 . doi:10.1123/ssj.17.4.364 10.1123/ssj.17.4.364 31. Muhm JM , Rock PB , McMullin DL , et
Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
effects on bone matrix. The engagement in nonprofessional sports might be responsible for the lower biomechanical strain on the skeleton than training routines observed in professional sports, leading to lower potential to stimulate the male skeleton. Among women, it is important to stimulate additional