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Frank C. Mendel, Michael G. Dolan, Dale R. Fish, John Marzo and Gregory E. Wilding

Context:

High-voltage pulsed current (HVPC), a form of electrical stimulation, is known to curb edema formation in laboratory animals and is commonly applied for ankle sprains, but the clinical effects remain undocumented.

Objective:

To determine whether, as an adjunct to routine acute and subacute care, subsensory HVPC applied nearly continuously for the first 72 h after lateral ankle sprains affected time lost to injury.

Design:

Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Setting:

Data were collected at 9 colleges and universities and 1 professional training site.

Participants:

50 intercollegiate and professional athletes.

Interventions:

Near-continuous live or placebo HVPC for 72 h postinjury in addition to routine acute and subacute care.

Main Outcome Measure:

Time lost to injury measured from time of injury until declared fit to play.

Results:

Overall, time lost to injury was not different between treated and control groups (P = .55). However, grade of injury was a significant factor. Time lost to injury after grade I lateral ankle sprains was greater for athletes receiving live HVPC than for those receiving placebo HVPC (P = .049), but no differences were found between groups for grade II sprains (P = .079).

Conclusions:

Application of subsensory HVPC had no clinically meaningful effect on return to play after lateral ankle sprain.

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Jill Tracey

Context:

Health professionals (ie, physical therapists, athletic trainers) can play an integral role in the psychological recovery from injury.

Objective:

To examine health professionals’ perceptions of the roles they play and their influence on the psychological recovery of their clients.

Design:

A qualitative design using semistructured interviews that were transcribed and analyzed using interpretational analyses to reveal themes.

Setting:

4 rehabilitation clinics specializing in sport- and physical-activity-related injuries.

Participants:

18 participants (17 physical therapists, 1 athletic trainer) with a mean age of 36 years.

Results:

Using thematic coding of the interview data, general-dimension data themes identified were centered on the roles of rapport builder, educator, and communicator. Health professionals perceive that they play important roles in the psychological recovery of their clients in spite of a lack of professional training in psychology and strive to create a caring and supportive environment. Results demonstrate the perceptions of the roles they play and the influence they have on the psychological component of the recovery process.

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Ian W. Ford and Sandy Gordon

A two-part study was used to survey sport trainers and athletic therapists on both the frequency and significance of emotions and behaviors displayed by athletes during treatment and the importance of psychological techniques in injury management. A questionnaire, developed from a preliminary study with experienced sport trainers (Part 1), was mailed to sport trainers in Australia and New Zealand and athletic therapists in Canada(Part 2). Responses from Australian (n = 53), New Zealand (n = 11), and Canadian (n = 32) participants suggested that (a) wanting to return to play too soon, anxiety and frustration, noncompliance, and denial were experienced frequently by injured athletes during rehabilitation and significantly hindered effective recovery; (b) psychological skills training and learning to deal with psychological responses to injury would facilitate more effective treatment; and (c) athletes' self-presentation styles influence the support and attention received from trainers/therapists. Findings suggest that the applied sport psychology content of professional training programs for sport trainers and athletic therapists should be extended.

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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

Equestrian media is showing an increasing interest in the impact of mental health on performance and general wellbeing of equestrian athletes. This study explores the awareness of mental health difficulties and psychological wellbeing within equestrian sport from the perspectives of equestrian athletes, instructors/coaches and parents. The exploratory nature of the research offered opportunity to use a dual approach including e-surveys and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key themes (Emotional Wellbeing in Balance; Emotional Wellbeing Imbalance; Wellbeing Imbalance—Impact on Equestrian Sportspeople; Impact of Equestrian Sport on Wellbeing; Regaining Balance) and 22 sub-themes. The findings determine a compelling need for education, promotion of sharing experiences, facilitation of specialist (clinical and sport) professional training and intervention as well as a review of regulations from equestrian Governing Bodies.

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Denis H. Stott, Sheila E. Henderson and Fred A. Moyes

This article describes the approach to testing that guided the recent revision of the Test of Motor Impairment (TOMI). Traditional attempts to measure intrinsic ability lent themselves to the labeling of children as defective. A test score should be regarded rather as a record of available capabilities. Performance depends on the abilities a child brings into play; the use of abilities and the development of skills depend in turn on motivational-emotional factors. Moreover, a composite score does not provide information about the reasons for failure. These considerations led to the compilation of qualitative diagnostic aids. The first directs the tester’s attention to the nature of a child’s failure of motor control, the second to behavioral sources of poor performance. The third checklist is a task-by-task, process-oriented analysis of motor faults designed for clinical diagnosis and professional training. In providing a detailed picture of a child’s performance, the TOMI bridges the gap between assessment and therapy and provides instrumentation for systematic, measurable therapy.

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Lijuan Wang

, 2017 ; Sato et al., 2007 ). On the one hand, PE teachers were unable to adapt their activities or instructions because most did not receive professional training in adapted PE and lacked professional knowledge. PE teachers may also be unwilling to adapt activities and instructions because doing so may

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Emma V. Richardson, Sarah Blaylock, Elizabeth Barstow, Matthew Fifolt and Robert W. Motl

–provider interaction, and participant exercise engagement. The base layer of the conceptual model (HCP training/support) involves professional training, service training, and provision of protocols for practitioners. This base layer emphasizes the educational resources that providers highlighted for efficiently

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Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum and Yandan Wu

toward including students with ASD. It could also be used to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and personal factors such as experience of teaching students with ASD, professional training experience of ASD, and contact with people with ASD. In addition, this instrument could be used to

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Luis Columna, Denzil A. Streete, Samuel R. Hodge, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, Beth Myers, Michael L. Norris, Tiago V. Barreira and Kevin S. Heffernan

was 7 ± 2.54 years. Parents provided demographic information on their child’s level of VI and academic support. A total of eight children had low vision, and three were reported to be blind (see Table  1 ). Two parents, a special education teacher, and an ophthalmologist had professional training and

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Matthew D. Bird and Brandonn S. Harris

as a Function of Professional Credentials Aside from the advantages and challenges associated with technology use within sport psychology practice, there is mounting evidence that the perceptions of ethical behavior in this area may be influenced by one’s professional training, background, and