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Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris

principles of activity programming and training, including: -progression -overload -specificity -balance, moderation, and variety -maintenance -reversibility -cost–benefit ratio Explain factors affecting participation and constraints to being active and explore how to overcome the latter to gain access to

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Matt Greig, Hannah Emmerson and John McCreadie

is to compare mechanical loading derived from triaxial accelerometry at the tibia with the traditional C7 location across a number of functional tasks. These tasks have been designed to reflect the multiplanar mechanism of injury, and a progression of drills used in late functional rehabilitation

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Thomas J. Aicher, Richard J. Buning and Brianna L. Newland

has only proposed these initial ideas (i.e.,  Getz & McConnell, 2011 ), asked about general preferences outside of an event participation context (i.e.,  Buning & Gibson, 2016a , 2016b ), or did not include travel career progression as part of the study (i.e.,  Newland & Aicher, 2018 ). Therefore

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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson, William D. Stanish, Nathan Urquhart and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

arthroplasty may be indicated once nonsurgical interventions become ineffective. 4 Under this model, patients spend years living with pain and disability, and the underlying disease processes are not addressed. A better understanding of factors involved in OA progression is essential to inform interventions

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A. Elizabeth Ready, Glen Bergeron, Suzanne L. Boreskie, Barbara Naimark, John Ducas, Jo-Ann V. Sawatzky and Donald T. Drinkwater

This study was a retrospective analysis of injuries sustained by women (mean age 60.9) who completed a 24-week walking intervention. We hypothesized that those who walked 60 min, 5 days/week (n = 27) were more likely to have an injury than those who walked 3 days/week (n = 27), and that predisposing conditions would lead to more injuries. We also examined the effect of the initial 4 weeks’ walking progression on likelihood of injury. A total of 12% of the walkers reported injuries necessitating program withdrawal, 18% reported minor injuries, and 26% reported injuries requiring medical treatment. Age, weight, cardiovascular fitness level, and walking volume were not significantly related to injuries. Women with prior musculoskeletal conditions were more likely to sustain injuries requiring medical treatment (p < .01). For these women, the initial progression may have been too rapid, suggesting that musculoskeletal screening and gradual progression guided by staff is important for moderate as well as intense activity programs.

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Karen E. French, Judith E. Rink, Linda Rikard, Amys Mays, Susan Lynn and Peter Werner

The purpose was to compare the effectiveness of practice progressions on learning the volleyball serve and overhead set. Ninth-grade students were randomly assigned to three groups. Each group practiced the volleyball serve and set for 60 trials over 6 days. The progression group practiced four levels of difficulty of the set and serve. The criterion group began practice at the beginning level of difficulty and had to achieve an 80% success rate before practicing at a more advanced level. The third group practiced the AAHPERD volleyball skill tests for the serve and set for all 60 trials. At the end of practice, all subjects were posttested using these AAHPERD tests. The results indicated the progression and criterion groups had higher posttest scores than the third group. Profiles of the success rates across acquisition for each group showed that students in the third group and low-skilled students in the progression and criterion groups did not improve during practice. Students with some initial skill in the progression and criterion groups exhibited high success rates for acquisition and improvement. These results indicate that sequencing practice in progressive levels of difficulty enhances retention when task difficulty is appropriate for the learner. However, no condition was effective when task difficulty was inappropriate for the learner.

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Sian V. Allen, Tom J. Vandenbogaerde and Will G. Hopkins

Many national sporting organizations recruit talented athletes to well-resourced centralized training squads to improve their performance.


To develop a method to monitor performance progression of swimming squads and to use this method to assess the progression of New Zealand’s centralized elite swimming squad.


Best annual long-course competition times of all New Zealand swimmers with at least 3 y of performances in an event between 2002 and 2013 were downloaded from (~281,000 times from ~8500 swimmers). A mixed linear model accounting for event, age, club, year, and elite-squad membership produced estimates of mean annual performance for 175 swim clubs and mean estimates of the deviation of swimmers’ performances from their individual quadratic trajectories after they joined the elite squad. Effects were evaluated using magnitude-based inferences, with a smallest important improvement in swim time of –0.24%.


Before 2009, effects of elite-squad membership were mostly unclear and trivial to small in magnitude. Thereafter, both sexes showed clear additional performance enhancements, increasing from large in 2009 (males –1.4% ± 0.8%, females –1.5% ± 0.8%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) to extremely large in 2013 (males –6.8% ± 1.7%, females –9.8% ± 2.9%). Some clubs also showed clear performance trends during the 11-y period.


Our method of quantifying deviations from individual trends in competition performance with a mixed model showed that Swimming New Zealand’s centralization strategy took several years to produce substantial performance effects. The method may also be useful for evaluating performance-enhancement strategies introduced at national or club level in other sports.

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Tom Willmott and Dave Collins

This study offered a first examination of skill development within freeskiing and snowboarding, using semistructured interviews to examine trick progression. Participants were purposefully recruited as performing at world top 8 level in 2014, the most recent Winter Olympic Games. A semi structured interview protocol, using a personalized progress chart, enabled the examination of trick progression across disciplines, with at least one participant from each of the events represented at the Games. Trick progression was achieved intermittently, moving through different stages during the year subject to experiencing the right conditions, training facilities, balancing time for progression with time for consolidation, competition periods and rehabilitating from injuries. There was high variance in the duration of trick progression between individuals and also high variance in the number of repetitions required to land a trick in competition. Imagery was a mental skill widely used and universally supported by our sample. Athletes and coaches should take directionality into consideration when planning their progression, ensuring all four directions are included and that prerequisite manoeuvres are included in an athlete’s training repertoire at the right stage to facilitate the learning of more complex manoeuvres at a later stage of development. Our data found a 60–40 balance between time-spent training on and off-snow, further research is required to determine the best combination of traditional strength and conditioning versus movement conditioning approaches, both from an injury prevention and a performance enhancement perspective.

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Ken Tokunaga, Yuki Nakai, Ryo Matsumoto, Ryoji Kiyama, Masayuki Kawada, Akihiko Ohwatashi, Kiyohiro Fukudome, Tadasu Ohshige and Tetsuo Maeda

This study evaluated the effect of foot progression angle on the reduction in knee adduction moment caused by a lateral wedged insole during walking. Twenty healthy, young volunteers walked 10 m at their comfortable velocity wearing a lateral wedged insole or control flat insole in 3 foot progression angle conditions: natural, toe-out, and toe-in. A 3-dimensional rigid link model was used to calculate the external knee adduction moment, the moment arm of ground reaction force to knee joint center, and the reduction ratio of knee adduction moment and moment arm. The result indicated that the toe-out condition and lateral wedged insole decreased the knee adduction moment in the whole stance phase. The reduction ratio of the knee adduction moment and the moment arm exhibited a close relationship. Lateral wedged insoles decreased the knee adduction moment in various foot progression angle conditions due to decrease of the moment arm of the ground reaction force. Moreover, the knee adduction moment during the toe-out gait with lateral wedged insole was the smallest due to the synergistic effect of the lateral wedged insole and foot progression angle. Lateral wedged insoles may be a valid intervention for patients with knee osteoarthritis regardless of the foot progression angle.

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Joanna E. Gelinas and Greg Reid

The purpose was to determine whether traditional learn-to-swim progressions, leading to a 10-m front and 10-m back swim, were developmentally valid for children with physical disabilities. Forty children (22 boys, 18 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated. They were classified according to disability type, functional sport classification, mode of ambulation, and flotation device use. Developmental validity was assessed by testing the children on rhythmic breathing, front float, front glide, front swim, back float, back glide, and back swim. Each skill was deemed successful if the child accomplished all performance criteria of that skill. Atypical progression was evident if a child performed a skill without the ability to perform skills previously listed in that progression. Atypical progression occurred in 32 (80%) children in the front skills and 22 (55%) in the back skills, which indicates that the traditional learn-to-swim progressions for both the 10-m front swim and the 10-m back swim were not developmentally valid for most children with physical disabilities in the conducted research.