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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson, William D. Stanish, Nathan Urquhart and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

arthroplasty may be indicated once nonsurgical interventions become ineffective. 4 Under this model, patients spend years living with pain and disability, and the underlying disease processes are not addressed. A better understanding of factors involved in OA progression is essential to inform interventions

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A. Elizabeth Ready, Glen Bergeron, Suzanne L. Boreskie, Barbara Naimark, John Ducas, Jo-Ann V. Sawatzky and Donald T. Drinkwater

This study was a retrospective analysis of injuries sustained by women (mean age 60.9) who completed a 24-week walking intervention. We hypothesized that those who walked 60 min, 5 days/week (n = 27) were more likely to have an injury than those who walked 3 days/week (n = 27), and that predisposing conditions would lead to more injuries. We also examined the effect of the initial 4 weeks’ walking progression on likelihood of injury. A total of 12% of the walkers reported injuries necessitating program withdrawal, 18% reported minor injuries, and 26% reported injuries requiring medical treatment. Age, weight, cardiovascular fitness level, and walking volume were not significantly related to injuries. Women with prior musculoskeletal conditions were more likely to sustain injuries requiring medical treatment (p < .01). For these women, the initial progression may have been too rapid, suggesting that musculoskeletal screening and gradual progression guided by staff is important for moderate as well as intense activity programs.

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Sian V. Allen, Tom J. Vandenbogaerde and Will G. Hopkins

Many national sporting organizations recruit talented athletes to well-resourced centralized training squads to improve their performance.


To develop a method to monitor performance progression of swimming squads and to use this method to assess the progression of New Zealand’s centralized elite swimming squad.


Best annual long-course competition times of all New Zealand swimmers with at least 3 y of performances in an event between 2002 and 2013 were downloaded from (~281,000 times from ~8500 swimmers). A mixed linear model accounting for event, age, club, year, and elite-squad membership produced estimates of mean annual performance for 175 swim clubs and mean estimates of the deviation of swimmers’ performances from their individual quadratic trajectories after they joined the elite squad. Effects were evaluated using magnitude-based inferences, with a smallest important improvement in swim time of –0.24%.


Before 2009, effects of elite-squad membership were mostly unclear and trivial to small in magnitude. Thereafter, both sexes showed clear additional performance enhancements, increasing from large in 2009 (males –1.4% ± 0.8%, females –1.5% ± 0.8%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) to extremely large in 2013 (males –6.8% ± 1.7%, females –9.8% ± 2.9%). Some clubs also showed clear performance trends during the 11-y period.


Our method of quantifying deviations from individual trends in competition performance with a mixed model showed that Swimming New Zealand’s centralization strategy took several years to produce substantial performance effects. The method may also be useful for evaluating performance-enhancement strategies introduced at national or club level in other sports.

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Ken Tokunaga, Yuki Nakai, Ryo Matsumoto, Ryoji Kiyama, Masayuki Kawada, Akihiko Ohwatashi, Kiyohiro Fukudome, Tadasu Ohshige and Tetsuo Maeda

This study evaluated the effect of foot progression angle on the reduction in knee adduction moment caused by a lateral wedged insole during walking. Twenty healthy, young volunteers walked 10 m at their comfortable velocity wearing a lateral wedged insole or control flat insole in 3 foot progression angle conditions: natural, toe-out, and toe-in. A 3-dimensional rigid link model was used to calculate the external knee adduction moment, the moment arm of ground reaction force to knee joint center, and the reduction ratio of knee adduction moment and moment arm. The result indicated that the toe-out condition and lateral wedged insole decreased the knee adduction moment in the whole stance phase. The reduction ratio of the knee adduction moment and the moment arm exhibited a close relationship. Lateral wedged insoles decreased the knee adduction moment in various foot progression angle conditions due to decrease of the moment arm of the ground reaction force. Moreover, the knee adduction moment during the toe-out gait with lateral wedged insole was the smallest due to the synergistic effect of the lateral wedged insole and foot progression angle. Lateral wedged insoles may be a valid intervention for patients with knee osteoarthritis regardless of the foot progression angle.

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Joanna E. Gelinas and Greg Reid

The purpose was to determine whether traditional learn-to-swim progressions, leading to a 10-m front and 10-m back swim, were developmentally valid for children with physical disabilities. Forty children (22 boys, 18 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated. They were classified according to disability type, functional sport classification, mode of ambulation, and flotation device use. Developmental validity was assessed by testing the children on rhythmic breathing, front float, front glide, front swim, back float, back glide, and back swim. Each skill was deemed successful if the child accomplished all performance criteria of that skill. Atypical progression was evident if a child performed a skill without the ability to perform skills previously listed in that progression. Atypical progression occurred in 32 (80%) children in the front skills and 22 (55%) in the back skills, which indicates that the traditional learn-to-swim progressions for both the 10-m front swim and the 10-m back swim were not developmentally valid for most children with physical disabilities in the conducted research.

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Kaitlin R. Lilienthal, Anna Evans Pignol, Jeffrey E. Holm and Nancy Vogeltanz-Holm

This study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for increasing physical activity in aging adults. Eighty-six participants aged 55 years and older were randomly assigned to receive either four weekly sessions of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity, or a healthy activity living guide (information only control). Changes from baseline weekly caloric expenditure from physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and stage of change for physical activity were compared across groups at posttreatment and six months follow-up. Results indicated that MI participants had higher weekly caloric expenditures from physical activity at posttreatment, but not at six months follow-up; higher self-efficacy for physical activity at six months follow-up; and demonstrated greater stage of change progression across assessments. These findings support the use of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity in older adults in the short-term. Future studies will need to determine if follow-up booster sessions increase long-term efficacy.

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Thomas A. Haugen, Paul A. Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel and Will G. Hopkins

progression. Interestingly, women improved more than men in most event groups in the 5 years preceding age of peak performance. Seemingly, world-class women responded better to training than men during this period. This relationship is somewhat opposite during the teens, as Tønnessen et al 6 observed higher

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Paul A. Solberg, Will G. Hopkins, Gøran Paulsen and Thomas A. Haugen

.1152/japplphysiol.00299.2006 10.1152/japplphysiol.00299.2006 16690791 16. Haugen T , Solberg PA , Morán-Navarro R , Breitschädel F , Hopkins W , Foster C . Peak age and performance progression in world-class track-and-field athletes . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2018 ; 13 ( 9 ): 1122 – 1129

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William J. Kraemer and Nicholas A. Ratamess

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Assane E.S. Niang and Bradford J. McFadyen

The present study investigated the adaptations of specific power bursts during the combined contexts of the proximity (lead vs. trail limb) and height of an obstruction in relation to limb elevation versus progression. Ten young, adult, male subjects walked at their natural speed during unobstructed walking and the bilateral avoidance of moderate and high obstacles. Hip flexor generation power was unaffected by obstacle height for the leading limb and always delayed for the trailing limb. The knee extensor absorption power burst at toe-off was also eliminated for the trailing limb and was found to reappear in mid-swing. Few differences were seen for ankle push-off power. The results suggest that the hip joint is dedicated to limb advancement only, while the knee joint is directly involved in limb elevation and the control of multiarticular effects.