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Nicole G. Dubuc, Robert J. Schinke, Mark A. Eys, Randy Battochio and Leonard Zaichkowsky

Within the current study, the process of adolescent burnout is considered in relation to perceived contributors, symptoms, consequences, and subsequently, effective and ineffective coping strategies. Through case studies, the researchers sought the burnout experiences of three competitive female gymnasts. Participants were selected based on scores obtained from Raedeke and Smith’s (2001) Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the process, athlete data were considered in tandem with interviews from at least one parent and one coach. Transcribed data were segmented into meaning units, coded into a hierarchy of themes and verified by each respondent. Despite common trends among the participants, differences were also found in relation to symptoms, contributors, and the progression of the condition. Implications are provided for the athlete/parent/coach triad and also for sport psychologists.

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Robert J. Schinke, Gershon Tenenbaum, Ronnie Lidor and Andrew M. Lane

Within this opportunity to dialogue in commentary exchange about a previously conceived adaptation model, published in the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, we revisit the utility of our model (Schinke et al., 2012a) and consider Tamminen and Crocker’s (2014) critique of our earlier writing. We also elaborate on emotion and emotion regulation through explaining hedonistic and instrumental motives to regulate emotions. We draw on research from general and sport psychology to examine emotion regulation (Gross, 2010). We argue that when investigating emotion, or any topic in psychology, the process of drawing from knowledge in a different area of the discipline can be useful, especially if the existing knowledge base in that area is already well developed. In particular, we draw on research using an evolutionary perspective (Nesse & Ellsworth, 2009). Accounting for these issues, we clarify the adaptation framework, expand it, and arguably offer a model that has greater utility for use with athletes in relation to training and competition cycles and progressions throughout their career. We also clarify for the readership places of misinterpretation by the commentary authors, and perhaps, why these have resulted.

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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

performance, progression and development.” Sport-specific consequences for those equestrian sportspeople struggling to manage mental health difficulties were characterised by “ negative thoughts, emotions and self-beliefs ” about ability and distorted “ perceptions of pressure and judgement ” typified by

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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer

“letting their body do it”) when working on the affected skills might prevent a relapse. Techniques that might be helpful in maintaining an appropriate level of conscious control include consistent visualization and video-review of the affected skills and progressions, continued work on progressions of the

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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik and Nikki Barczak

). Though speculative, the late specializers sampled may have been in the early stages of burnout development, but were able to stop the progression of symptomology. Together, these findings offer support for the posited increased burnout risks of early specialization due to a mismatch between sporting

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Tanya R. Prewitt-White

consensual. Unfortunately, the results of this vindictive, deliberate process are often easier to identify as grooming than the progression of techniques utilized by the perpetrator. Consequently, there is grey area that must be acknowledged and understood though certain grooming behaviors (e

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Ashley A. Hansen, Joanne E. Perry, John W. Lace, Zachary C. Merz, Taylor L. Montgomery and Michael J. Ross

). Furthermore, these instruments have utility for practitioners, as they provide ongoing feedback related to the progression of treatment ( Beckstead et al., 2003 ; MacFarlane, Henry, Nash, Kissel, & Bush, 2015 ). It is suggested that continuous measurement of the therapeutic process and outcome is necessary

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

phases, which may take several years to complete ( Pherson, Stambulova, & Olsson, 2017 ). Although these phases reflect demands, barriers, resources, and outcomes relevant to junior athletes’ career progression, it is likely that athletes who successfully transition to a career under the big top may also

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

functional responses to adversity (e.g.,  Turner, 2016 ), which may facilitate an athletes’ progression and ascension to elite standing. However, although consistent with REBT theory, this conjecture goes beyond the data and scope of the current study. Second, it may be that repeated exposure to adversity

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

centers may have led to limited displays of strength and power, since appropriate and safe fitness progression develops over time. Likewise, the inability to collect data on patients after treatment discharge serves as a limitation as it is unclear whether strength and power were maintained or further