The purpose was to determine whether traditional learn-to-swim progressions, leading to a 10-m front and 10-m back swim, were developmentally valid for children with physical disabilities. Forty children (22 boys, 18 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated. They were classified according to disability type, functional sport classification, mode of ambulation, and flotation device use. Developmental validity was assessed by testing the children on rhythmic breathing, front float, front glide, front swim, back float, back glide, and back swim. Each skill was deemed successful if the child accomplished all performance criteria of that skill. Atypical progression was evident if a child performed a skill without the ability to perform skills previously listed in that progression. Atypical progression occurred in 32 (80%) children in the front skills and 22 (55%) in the back skills, which indicates that the traditional learn-to-swim progressions for both the 10-m front swim and the 10-m back swim were not developmentally valid for most children with physical disabilities in the conducted research.
Joanna E. Gelinas and Greg Reid
Paul R. Surburg
Problems encountered by researchers conducting motor learning studies with special populations are the central focus of this paper. The sequence of topical coverage follows a progression that would be encountered by researchers as they develop and conduct research studies. For each problem or issue identified, a suggestion is provided to help researchers cope with these problems. The following topics are examined: development of an appropriate problem, selection of a handicapping condition, determination of dependent variables, utilization of correct experimental protocols, evaluation of project design, and assessment of data.
Allen W. Burton
Adapted physical education specialists must design and carry out programs for students with movement coordination problems, but intervention strategies for such students are rarely included in adapted physical education textbooks. In response to the lack of information available to practitioners, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for better understanding movement coordination, to briefly review some of the methods used by both researchers and practitioners to assess coordination, and to present some possible strategies for addressing movement coordination deficits. Two types of coordination solutions are discussed—neuromotor and mechanical—and specific activity progressions are given for jumping jacks and overhand throwing.
Debbie Van Biesen, Joeri Verellen, Christophe Meyer, Jennifer Mactavish, Peter Van de Vliet and Yves Vanlandewijck
In this study the ability of elite table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID) to adapt their service/return to specific ball spin characteristics was investigated. This was done by examining the performance of 39 players with ID and a reference group of 8 players without ID on a standardized table tennis specific test battery. The battery included 16 sets of 15 identical serves that had to be returned to a fixed target, and two additional tests measuring reaction time and upper limb speed. A 2 × 4 ANOVA (with group and type of spin as independent variables) with repeated measurements (15 consecutive returns) supported the hypothesis that elite table tennis players with ID were significantly less proficient than their counterparts without ID, but both groups demonstrated a comparable progression in learning. Spearman correlation coefficients indicated a positive relationship between accuracy of return and upper limb speed (rho = 0.42: p < .05) and reaction time (rho = 0.41: p < .05), showing that these generic factors are useful in partially explaining skill variations in specific sports.
Research The Developmental Validity of Traditional Learn-To-Swim Progressions for Children with Physical Disabilities Joanna E. Gelinas * Greg Reid * 7 2000 17 3 269 285 10.1123/apaq.17.3.269 Documentary Analysis of Survey Research in Adapted Physical Activity: 1984-1998 David L. Porretta
Nima Dehghansai, Daniel Spedale, Melissa J. Wilson and Joseph Baker
on sport readiness for stage progression in contrast to other models that use the biological age/maturity level of athletes as markers of progression. As athletes with impairments may be impacted by specific biopsychosocial barriers that are not apparent in AB sport ( Baker & Horton, 2004
Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram and Sterling Clarren
through the program by adult “buddies,” who motivate and keep the children on task and ensure progression in task difficulty over time. The purpose of the present paper is to describe (a) the FAST Club intervention program and (b) the effects of FAST Club on a measure of EF, the Children’s Color Trails
-by-step progression serves as a guideline that can be used to select the most appropriate assessment instrument to match the decision being made (e.g., screening, placement, eligibility, instructional planning, reviewing student progress). Also discussed in these two chapters is the selection and administration of
Byron Lai, Katie Cederberg, Kerri A. Vanderbom, C. Scott Bickel, James H. Rimmer and Robert W. Motl
responsible for coding variables related to the demographic and clinical characteristics of the samples and progression/flow of participants throughout each stage of the trial. Demographic information included age, ethnicity, employment status, educational level, living or marital status, and level of
Emma V. Richardson, Sarah Blaylock, Elizabeth Barstow, Matthew Fifolt and Robert W. Motl
, Sandroff, Klaren, & Motl, 2014 ); cardiovascular health ( Wens, Ejinde, & Hansen, 2016 ); and quality of life in persons with MS. There is even evidence that exercise training may represent a disease-modifying behavior by influencing the rates of relapses and disability progression ( Motl & Pilutti, 2016