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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson, William D. Stanish, Nathan Urquhart and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

arthroplasty may be indicated once nonsurgical interventions become ineffective. 4 Under this model, patients spend years living with pain and disability, and the underlying disease processes are not addressed. A better understanding of factors involved in OA progression is essential to inform interventions

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Ken Tokunaga, Yuki Nakai, Ryo Matsumoto, Ryoji Kiyama, Masayuki Kawada, Akihiko Ohwatashi, Kiyohiro Fukudome, Tadasu Ohshige and Tetsuo Maeda

This study evaluated the effect of foot progression angle on the reduction in knee adduction moment caused by a lateral wedged insole during walking. Twenty healthy, young volunteers walked 10 m at their comfortable velocity wearing a lateral wedged insole or control flat insole in 3 foot progression angle conditions: natural, toe-out, and toe-in. A 3-dimensional rigid link model was used to calculate the external knee adduction moment, the moment arm of ground reaction force to knee joint center, and the reduction ratio of knee adduction moment and moment arm. The result indicated that the toe-out condition and lateral wedged insole decreased the knee adduction moment in the whole stance phase. The reduction ratio of the knee adduction moment and the moment arm exhibited a close relationship. Lateral wedged insoles decreased the knee adduction moment in various foot progression angle conditions due to decrease of the moment arm of the ground reaction force. Moreover, the knee adduction moment during the toe-out gait with lateral wedged insole was the smallest due to the synergistic effect of the lateral wedged insole and foot progression angle. Lateral wedged insoles may be a valid intervention for patients with knee osteoarthritis regardless of the foot progression angle.

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Joanna E. Gelinas and Greg Reid

The purpose was to determine whether traditional learn-to-swim progressions, leading to a 10-m front and 10-m back swim, were developmentally valid for children with physical disabilities. Forty children (22 boys, 18 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated. They were classified according to disability type, functional sport classification, mode of ambulation, and flotation device use. Developmental validity was assessed by testing the children on rhythmic breathing, front float, front glide, front swim, back float, back glide, and back swim. Each skill was deemed successful if the child accomplished all performance criteria of that skill. Atypical progression was evident if a child performed a skill without the ability to perform skills previously listed in that progression. Atypical progression occurred in 32 (80%) children in the front skills and 22 (55%) in the back skills, which indicates that the traditional learn-to-swim progressions for both the 10-m front swim and the 10-m back swim were not developmentally valid for most children with physical disabilities in the conducted research.

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Assane E.S. Niang and Bradford J. McFadyen

The present study investigated the adaptations of specific power bursts during the combined contexts of the proximity (lead vs. trail limb) and height of an obstruction in relation to limb elevation versus progression. Ten young, adult, male subjects walked at their natural speed during unobstructed walking and the bilateral avoidance of moderate and high obstacles. Hip flexor generation power was unaffected by obstacle height for the leading limb and always delayed for the trailing limb. The knee extensor absorption power burst at toe-off was also eliminated for the trailing limb and was found to reappear in mid-swing. Few differences were seen for ankle push-off power. The results suggest that the hip joint is dedicated to limb advancement only, while the knee joint is directly involved in limb elevation and the control of multiarticular effects.

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Susana Meireles, Neil D. Reeves, Richard K. Jones, Colin R. Smith, Darryl G. Thelen and Ilse Jonkers

been deeply explored in OA with most studies in literature focusing on knee loading during level walking as a biomarker for OA onset and progression. Previous literature has shown reduced knee flexion moments (KFM), 4 , 7 , 9 nonconclusive findings in knee adduction moments (KAM), 4 , 10 and altered

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James G. Hay

There have been few attempts to synthesize the knowledge gleaned from the study of cyclic human locomotion and, specifically, to determine whether there are general laws that describe or govern all such forms of locomotion. The purpose of this paper was to test the hypothesis that, when a human participant performs multiple trials of a given form of cyclic locomotion at a wide range of speeds (S) and without constraint on cycle rate (CR) or cycle length (CL), the relationships of CR vs. S and CL vs. S have the same basic characteristics as do those for any other form of cyclic locomotion. Data were gathered from published and unpublished sources. For each participant and form of locomotion, CR-vs.-S and CL-vs.-S relationships were plotted on a common scattergram with S on the abscissa and both CR and CL on the ordinate. Analysis of data collected on 49 participants and 12 forms of locomotion showed that, for every combination of participant and form of locomotion considered (excluding combinations involving simulated locomotion), the relationships of CR vs. S and CL vs. S had the same basic characteristics. These relationships were quadratic in form with CR-vs.-S concave upward and CL-vs.-S concave downward. The factor that made the greater contribution to increases in S was a function of S, with CL the primary factor at low S and CR the primary factor at high S. In short, the results obtained provided unequivocal support for the hypothesis of the study. The basic CR-vs.-S and CL-vs.-S relationships observed for forms of actual locomotion were also observed for some, but not all, of the forms of simulated locomotion examined.

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Henrik Koblauch, Thomas Heilskov-Hansen, Tine Alkjær, Erik B. Simonsen and Marius Henriksen

It is unclear how rotations of the lower limb affect the knee joint compression forces during walking. Increases in the frontal plane knee moment have been reported when walking with internally rotated feet and a decrease when walking with externally rotated feet. The aim of this study was to investigate the knee joint compressive forces during walking with internal, external and normal foot rotation and to determine if the frontal plane knee joint moment is an adequate surrogate for the compression forces in the medial and lateral knee joint compartments under such gait modifications. Ten healthy males walked at a fixed speed of 4.5 km/h under three conditions: Normal walking, internally rotated and externally rotated. All gait trials were recorded by six infrared cameras. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. The results revealed that the medial knee joint compartment compression force increased during external foot rotation and the lateral knee joint compartment compression force increased during internal foot rotation. The increases in joint loads may be a result of increased knee flexion angles. Further, these data suggest that the frontal plane knee joint moment is not a valid surrogate measure for knee joint compression forces but rather indicates the medial-to-lateral load distribution.

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Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts and Nathalie A. Roussel

values. The mean speed of progression (the speed with which the performer moves through space) was calculated by the product of stride length and stride frequency, based on the progression of the ankle marker. Statistical Analyses Statistical analysis was performed in IBM/SPSS (version 22 for Windows

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Oladipo O. Eddo, Bryndan W. Lindsey, Shane V. Caswell, Matt Prebble and Nelson Cortes

investigate the acute changes in the biomechanical parameters of the nonmodified side in participants undergoing dose-specific medial knee thrust, lateral trunk lean, and toe-in foot progression gait modification. It was hypothesized that implementing these gait modification strategies would increase the

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Dimitrios-Sokratis Komaris, Cheral Govind, Andrew Murphy, Alistair Ewen and Philip Riches

movement alterations is to unload the affected joint while keeping the pain experienced to a minimum. 13 – 15 Yet such asymmetric adaptations can lead to the progression of the disease, and even knee replacements in the contralateral joints in patients with end-stage osteoarthritis. 16 , 17 The