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Jérôme Vaulerin, Frédéric Chorin, Mélanie Emile, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville and Serge S. Colson

, having unstable ankles or previous ankle sprains did not significantly predict the ankle sprains that occurred in the present prospective study. Nevertheless, due to the limited cost and time effectiveness of chronic ankle instability and history of ankle sprain screening, these factors should be

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Gulcan Harput, Volga B. Tunay and Matthew P. Ithurburn

. It was hypothesized that there would be a consistent increase in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength of the involved limb over the first 6 months following ACLR. Methods This was a prospective study of registry data collected for all patients who underwent primary, arthroscopic autograft ACLR

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Javier Raya-González, Luis Suárez-Arrones, Archit Navandar, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández and Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal

professional football using a risk based assessment process . Br J Sports Med . 2002 ; 36 ( 6 ): 446 – 451 . PubMed ID: 12453840 doi:10.1136/bjsm.36.6.446 10.1136/bjsm.36.6.446 12453840 4. Hägglund M , Waldén M , Ekstrand J . Injury incidence and distribution in elite football—a prospective study of

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Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts and Nathalie A. Roussel

the movement strategy of free movements was examined in novice performers by means of a prospective study. Figure  1 illustrates the design of this study. The Old Man exercise, a theater exercise of Jan Fabre, was previously used as evaluation for the free control of movement in experienced

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Kelsey M. Rynkiewicz, Lauren A. Fry and Lindsay J. DiStefano

for a faster return to sport or activity. Future research should focus on additional prospective studies to further confirm common characteristics among those diagnosed with CECS as the current research is still controversial. Research regarding specific demographic characteristics is needed as

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Xin Fu, Patrick Shu-hang Yung, Chun Cheong Ma and Hio Teng Leong

trapezius relative to upper trapezius was associated with decreased scapular rotation in athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy. 20 More high-quality prospective studies are required to investigate the changes in scapular kinematics in overhead athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy for the prevention

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Pedro Gómez-Carmona, Ismael Fernández-Cuevas, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Javier Arnaiz-Lastras and Archit Navandar

. Study Design A cross-sectional and prospective study design was used to compare 2 injury prevention programs applied over 2 consecutive preseasons: a conventional injury prevention program (CPP) applied over the first preseason (48 d) and an infrared thermography injury prevention program (IRTPP

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Simon M. Luethi, Edward C. Frederick, Michael R. Hawes and Benno M. Nigg

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of footwear on the kinematics and the mechanical load on the lower extremities during fast lateral movements in tennis. The method used was a prospective study. Two types of tennis shoes were randomly distributed among 229 tennis players. The subjects were measured before starting a 3-month test period. The study showed that the kinematics of the lower extremities and internal load conditions during fast lateral movements in tennis are highly influenced by the type of shoe worn. The results further suggest that a prospective biomechanical analysis can be used to establish assumptions concerning the etiology of pain and injuries in sports related activities.

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Becky L. Heinert, Thomas W. Kernozek, John F. Greany and Dennis C. Fater


To determine if females with hip abductor weakness are more likely to demonstrate greater knee abduction during the stance phase of running than a strong hip abductor group.

Study Design:

Observational prospective study design.


University biomechanics laboratory.


15 females with weak hip abductors and 15 females with strong hip abductors.

Main Outcome Measures:

Group differences in lower extremity kinematics were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with one between factor of group and one within factor of position with a significance value of P < .05.


The subjects with weak hip abductors demonstrated greater knee abduction during the stance phase of treadmill running than the strong group (P < .05). No other significant differences were found in the sagittal or frontal plane measurements of the hip, knee, or pelvis.


Hip abductor weakness may influence knee abduction during the stance phase of running.

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Benno M. Nigg, Edward C. Frederick, Michael R. Hawes and Simon M. Luethi

Pain, discomfort, and/or injuries in tennis can be influenced by the individual movement pattern and the external and/or internal boundary conditions. The influence of external boundary conditions on the occurrence of short-term pain was studied in a prospective study with 229 subjects. The boundary conditions investigated were shoe, temperature, type and length of game and subjective assessment of comfort, sole grip, and lateral stability Pain was reported by 40% of the 171 subjects included in the final analysis. It was frequently reported in the first two playing sessions but less frequently afterward. Discomfort was the dominant type of pain, accounting for 71.6% of all reported cases. The foot was the major site of pain (85%). The boundary conditions influencing pain were found to be the shoe (the more flexible shoe 1 had less pain than the suffer shoe 2), the type of game (competitive more than recreational), and the length of the game (longer playing sessions with more pain). Subjective assessment of comfort, sole grip, and lateral support also showed differences for the pain/no pain groups. Subjects who complained about these aspects were more frequently in the pain groups. The results show that the occurrence of pain in tennis can be influenced by various external boundary conditions.