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Richard Johnston, Roisin Cahalan, Laura Bonnett, Matthew Maguire, Alan Nevill, Philip Glasgow, Kieran O’Sullivan and Thomas Comyns

characteristics, and IP risk. 14 A recent systematic review of ESPs 6 has identified nonmodifiable baseline characteristics (ie, increased age, history of previous IP), that are associated with increased IP risk. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the association between TL factors including

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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch

prospective study . Br J Sports Med . 2016 ; 50 ( 11 ): 651 – 656 . PubMed ID: 26552415 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094798 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094798 7. Lathlean TJH , Gastin PB , Newstead SV , Finch CF . Elite junior Australian football players experience significantly different loads across

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Chia-Lin Li, Feng-Hsuan Liu and Jen-Der Lin

The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the effect of physical activity independent of obesity on metabolic risk factors. A total of 358 participants were recruited from the Department of Health Management of Chang Gung Medical Center. Physical activity was assessed using a 3-d activity record. Body-mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk factors were also assessed. Our findings demonstrate that an effect of obesity that was statistically independent of the levels of physical activity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Moreover, physical activity displayed inverse associations with triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose and a positive association with HDL cholesterol. Those participants with time spent in moderate activity more than 0.5 h each day had significantly less risk of high fasting glucose. Significantly, these associations were independent of BMI.

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Nico W. Van Yperen

This prospective study was designed to identify psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer. Post hoc, two groups were distinguished: (1) Male soccer players who successfully progressed into professional adult soccer (n = 18) and (2) Male soccer players who did not reach this level (n = 47). Differences between the two groups were examined on the basis of data gathered in the initial phase of their careers, 15 years earlier. The psychological factors that predicted career success while statistically controlling for initial performance level and demographic variables were goal commitment, engagement in problem-focused coping behaviors, and social support seeking. On the basis of their scores on the significant predictor and control variables, 84.6% of the adolescent youth players were classified correctly as successful or unsuccessful.

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Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker

This paper explores the notion that the availability and analysis of large data sets have the capacity to improve practice and change the nature of science in the sport and exercise setting. The increasing use of data and information technology in sport is giving rise to this change. Web sites hold large data repositories, and the development of wearable technology, mobile phone applications, and related instruments for monitoring physical activity, training, and competition provide large data sets of extensive and detailed measurements. Innovative approaches conceived to more fully exploit these large data sets could provide a basis for more objective evaluation of coaching strategies and new approaches to how science is conducted. An emerging discipline, sports analytics, could help overcome some of the challenges involved in obtaining knowledge and wisdom from these large data sets. Examples of where large data sets have been analyzed, to evaluate the career development of elite cyclists and to characterize and optimize the training load of well-trained runners, are discussed. Careful verification of large data sets is time consuming and imperative before useful conclusions can be drawn. Consequently, it is recommended that prospective studies be preferred over retrospective analyses of data. It is concluded that rigorous analysis of large data sets could enhance our knowledge in the sport and exercise sciences, inform competitive strategies, and allow innovative new research and findings.

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Laura Capranica and Mindy L. Millard-Stafford

A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and feld, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psycho-physiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.

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281 281 10.1123/tsp.26.2.261 A Prospective Study of the Influence of Perceived Coaching Style on Burnout Propensity in High Level Young Athletes: Using a Self-Determination Theory Perspective Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur * Emma Guillet-Descas * Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre * 6 2012 26 26 2 2 282 282 298

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.1123/ijspp.2018-0662 ijspp.2018-0662 Training Load and Baseline Characteristics Associated With New Injury/Pain Within an Endurance Sporting Population: A Prospective Study Richard Johnston * Roisin Cahalan * Laura Bonnett * Matthew Maguire * Alan Nevill * Philip Glasgow * Kieran O

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Nathan A. Lewis, Andrew J. Simpkin, Sarah Moseley, Gareth Turner, Mark Homer, Ann Redgrave, Charles R. Pedlar and Richard Burden

field athletes: a 5-year prospective study . J Sci Med Sport . 2016 ; 19 ( 10 ): 778 – 783 . PubMed ID: 26839047 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.515 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.515 26839047 2. Jones CM , Griffiths PC , Mellalieu SD . Training load and fatigue marker associations with injury and