consumer and producer tends to blur, which has led to the introduction of the terms prosumer and prosumption ( Quan-Haase & Young, 2010 ; Ritzer & Jurgenson, 2010 ). The terms prosumer and prosumption describe users’ ability to take more control over the distribution and production of content in
Michelle Hayes, Kevin Filo, Caroline Riot and Andrea Geurin
Jo Williams and Susan J. Chinn
Sport industry marketers have long understood the importance of nurturing customer relationships. The new challenge is how best to face the shifts in customer relationship marketing posed by sports organizations and proactive consumers, or “prosumers.” In this article, the elements of the relationship-building process are presented with a focus on communication, interaction, and value, concepts identified in Gronroos’s (2004) relationship-marketing process model. An expanded version of Gronroos’s model is developed to include prosumers and to describe the interactions that occur through social-media exchanges. The value of specific social-media tools and Web 2.0 technologies in helping sport marketers meet their relationship-marketing goals is also discussed. Finally, directions for future research employing the expanded model are suggested.
Zhengjia Liu and Dan Berkowitz
Social media have changed the way that social actors participate in sports events. “Prosumers” are able to directly offer different interpretations without journalists’ mediation when a social issue arises. However, social media do not fundamentally change the significance of cultural narratives in communication. This study focuses on discussions initiated by a commercial feed on a Chinese microblogging site during the 2012 London Olympic Games. Qualitative textual analysis was conducted. The study found that enduring cultural narratives create the predrafts of social-media communication; the instantaneity of microblogging referred to not simply its physical appearance but also the meaning of that appearance. In addition, social-media texts illustrate a society’s ongoing stories. Going beyond the limitations of previous control-vs.-freedom paradigms, this study explores a Chinese consumer society that is more dynamic and complex than previous studies would suggest.
Emily Stadder and Michael L. Naraine
fans have money on the line. Williams and Chinn ( 2010 ) even found many consumers in sport to be so proactive they named them “prosumers.” Prosumers very much want to be involved in the creation of products and services, and they need easy ways to connect with the organization. By doing so with
Mathieu Winand, Matthew Belot, Sebastian Merten and Dimitrios Kolyperas
( Abeza et al., 2013 ). Williams and Chinn ( 2010 ) examined how sport organizations could reach their RM goals through social media and argued that the new challenge for sport organizations is how to handle the shift in the customer relationship, as consumers now are known as “prosumers” due to their
Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas and Christos Anagnostopoulos
different actors cocreate value in a network. Indeed, the inherent characteristics of Facebook and Twitter have expanded the amalgamation of consumers and producers into “prosumers” ( Tapscott, 2008 ), which has been also noted in the sport context by O’Shea and Alonso ( 2011 ). In this sense, the content