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Megan Colletto and Nancy Rodriguez

; Paddon-Jones & Rasmussen, 2009 ). Physical activity, strength training in particular, improves whole body protein balance (WBPB) in older individuals ( Timmerman et al., 2012 ; Walker et al., 2011 ). Of significance to this investigation is the potential of yoga as an alternative exercise option for the

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Annemarthe L. Herrema, Marjan J. Westerman, Ellen J.I. van Dongen, Urszula Kudla and Martijn Veltkamp

first issue, a growing body of literature recognizes the critical role of protein supplements in combination with physical activity in the prevention of sarcopenia ( Mann, Yudilevich, & Sobrevia, 2003 ; Rolland, Dupuy, van Kan, Gillette, & Vellas, 2011 ; Volpi, Kobayashi, Sheffield-Moore, Mittendorfer

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

 al., 2016 ; Tomeleri et al., 2016 , 2018 ). A growing body of evidence indicates that higher protein intake may improve MetS risk factors ( Mirmiran, Hajifaraji, Bahadoran, Sarvghadi, & Aziz, 2012 ; Nabuco et al., 2018a ; Pal & Radavelli-Bagatini, 2013 ), and when combined with RT could promote an

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Mike Pryzbek, Julie Richardson, Lehana Thabane and Ada Tang

-reactive protein (hs-CRP), which is elevated in the presence of cardiovascular disease ( Rost et al., 2001 ). While systemic biomarker levels cannot pinpoint the specific location of inflammation, elevated hs-CRP is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular events ( Rost et al., 2001 ) and is an established risk

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Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett

, 2009 ; Rosenkranz, 2007 ; Wellen & Hotamisligil, 2005 ). Commonly employed measures include C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which respond acutely to infection or trauma but can also reflect subclinical pro-inflammatory activity. In addition, in clinical settings, interferon gamma

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Michael R. Richardson, Tammie M. Johnson, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Earl S. Ford, William R. Boyer and James R. Churilla

Background:

Few studies have examined the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA).

Methods:

The sample (n = 7533) included U.S. adult (≥20 years of age).participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Created categories of MSA participation included no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L).

Results:

Analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.44–0.93, P = .0191). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.88, P = .0019). Following adjustment for waist circumference (WC) these odds remained significant in men but not women.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women.

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Maureen Lucas and Cynthia J. Heiss

Protein recommendations by some professional organizations for young adults engaged in resistance training (RT) are higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), but recommendations for resistance-training older adults (>50 years old) are not well characterized. Some argue that the current RDA is adequate, but others indicate increased protein needs. Although concerns have been raised about the consequences of high protein intake, protein intake above the RDA in older adults is associated with increased bone-mineral density when calcium intake is adequate and does not appear to compromise renal health in older individuals with normal renal function. Individual protein needs for older adults in RT are likely highly variable according to health and training regimen, but an intake of 1.0–1.3 g · kg−1 · day−1 should adequately and safely meet the needs of older adults engaged in RT, provided that their energy needs are met.

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James LeCheminant, Larry Tucker and Kenric Russell

Background:

This study investigated the relationship between objectively-measured total physical activity (PA), and intensity of PA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in 211 healthy, middle-age women (43.1 ± 3.0 y). In addition, this study examined the extent to which age, BMI, abdominal circumference, and body fat percentage operated as confounders in these associations.

Methods:

PA was objectively measured for 7 continuous days using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were taken, from which CRP was measured using a solid phase ELISA. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), abdominal circumference measured at the umbilicus, and body fat percentage using air displacement plethysmography, were assessed.

Results:

Total PA (activity counts) was significantly and inversely related to CRP concentrations (F = 7.76, P = .006) as was vigorous-intensity PA. After adjusting for differences in body fat percentage, total PA and vigorous-intensity PA were no longer significant predictors of CRP. Abdominal circumference and BMI also tended to weaken the relationship between total or vigorous-intensity PA and CRP but not to the same extent as body fat percentage.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that higher total and vigorous-intensity PA levels are significantly related to lower CRP levels in healthy, middle-age women; however, this relationship is largely a function of differences in body fat percentage.

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Yan Wang, Lea A. Cupul-Uicab, Walter J. Rogan, Merete Eggesbo, Gregory Travlos, Ralph Wilson and Matthew P. Longnecker

Background:

Pregnant women who are physically active have a lower risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes than women who are less active. One possible mechanism is a reduction in low-grade inflammation, as measured by plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between exercise and CRP in pregnant women, however, has not been adequately investigated.

Methods:

A total of 537 pregnant women, enrolled around the 17th week of gestation in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 to 2004, were studied. Self-reported recreational exercise was recalled for both 3 months before pregnancy and early pregnancy. The total energy expenditure from recreational exercise (total recreational exercise, metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-hr/week) was estimated, and low-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise was defined. Plasma CRP concentrations were measured during pregnancy.

Results:

In adjusted linear regression models, mean CRP concentration was 1.0% lower [95% CI = –1.9% to 0.2%] with each 1 MET-hr/week of total recreational exercise before pregnancy. In addition, vigorous-intensity exercise before pregnancy was more strongly related to a reduction in CRP levels than low- or moderate-intensity exercise. However, we observed no association between recreational exercise during pregnancy and plasma CRP levels.

Conclusion:

Recreational exercise before pregnancy, especially vigorous exercise, may reduce the risk of maternal inflammation during pregnancy.

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Maxwell Ruby, Chris P. Repka and Paul J. Arciero

Background:

Yoga/Stretching (YS) and functional resistance (FR) training are popular exercise routines. A protein-pacing (PP) diet is a common dietary regimen. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness of a PP diet alone and in combination with either YS or FR to improve body composition and cardiometabolic health.

Methods:

Twenty-seven overweight women (age = 43.2 ± 4.6 years) were randomized into 3 groups: yoga (YS, n = 8) or resistance (FR, n = 10) training (3 days/week) in conjunction with PP diet (50% carbohydrate, 25% protein, and 25% fat) or PP diet-only (PP, n = 9) throughout 12-week study. PP maintained preexisting levels of physical activity. Body weight (BW), total (BF) and abdominal (ABF) body fat, waist circumference (WC), plasma biomarkers, and aerobic fitness (VO2) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks.

Results:

WC and total cholesterol improved in all groups, whereas glycemia tended to improve (P = .06) in S. BF, ABF, and VO2 increased significantly in YS and FR (P < .05). Feelings of vigor increased in YS and tension decreased in FR (P < .05).

Conclusions:

YS training tended to decrease blood glucose compared with FR and PP and is equally effective at enhancing body composition, and aerobic fitness in overweight women providing a strong rationale for further research on YS training.