Psychologists’ narrations have identified how difficult it is to treat individuals with eating disorders. Moreover, the further the illness has progressed, the greater is the resistance to treatment. Therefore, prevention is critical in reducing the prevalence of these disorders among female athletes. The individuals having the most contact with athletes, and thus constituting the first line of defense against this problem, are coaches. Yet, information about nutrition and proper weight control and how these topics should be properly communicated to athletes is frequently not part of a coach’s training, and consequently may not be part of a coach’s knowledge base. This study was designed to evaluate the perceived versus actual knowledge about nutrition and weight control held by high school coaches of girls’ teams (̲n = 42). Two questionnaires, designed by the investigators, were administered sequentially. The first requested perceptions on various nutritional and weight control issues. The second was a quiz on actual knowledge of nutrition and weight control. Ninety-one percent of the coaches rated their nutrition knowledge as average or above, while only 40 percent had taken any formal classes in nutrition. On the actual quiz, only 14 percent of the coaches knew what percentage of simple carbohydrates should constitute athletes’ diets, while less than half (40%) were able to identify sources of complex carbohydrates. Eleven percent of the coaches thought athletes should have a high protein diet, while almost all of them (80%) believed that muscle is gained by eating proteins. Furthermore, only eight percent were able to identify sources of low fat protein. In regard to issues of weight control, 40 percent of the coaches thought athletes would improve performance by losing weight, 33 percent had impressed on their team the need to lose several times, and 28 percent had spoken to individual athletes about the need to lose weight several times. The predominant method for monitoring weight loss in athletes was visual inspection (37%) rather than actual measurement. Moreover, 77 percent of the coaches thought weight loss had to exceed 15 percent to reflect an anorectic condition, suggesting a possible need for earlier intervention by coaches. Since 82 percent of the coaches incorrectly thought body image distortions occur equally among male and female adolescents, it seems they are unaware of the greater risk for eating disorders among female athletes. While this study represents a small sampling of coaches, the observed lack of congruence between perceived and actual knowledge regarding nutrition and weight control must be addressed if prevention of eating disorders among athletes is to become a reality.
V.G. Overdorf and K.S. Silgailis
Canadian men flock to gyms to enlarge, reshape, and sculpt their bodies. Fitness centers, health-food stores, muscle magazines, and Internet sites profit by aggressively selling “sports supplements” to a wide range of exercising men. Once associated with only the hardcore factions of male bodybuilders (Klein, 1995), designer protein powders, creatine products, energy bars, ephedrine, amino acids, diuretics, and growth hormones such as androstenedione are generically marketed to men as health and lifestyle-improving aids. This paper explores how a select group of Canadian men connect the consumption of sports supplements to the pursuit of “established” masculinity. I collected ethnographic data from 57 recreational athletes in Canada and interpreted the data through the lens of figurational sociology. Analytic attention is thus given to how contemporary discourses and practices of supplementation are underscored by middle-class understandings of masculine bodies in a time of perceived “gender crisis” in Canada.
Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett
(mL) 817 (472) 817 (472) CHO (g) 93.2 (53.9) 50.5 (29.2) Protein (g) 27.6 (16.0) 0.0 (0.0) Fat (g) 8.6 (5.0) 0.0 (0.0) Energy (kcal) 552.3 (319.4) 184.2 (106.5) Sodium (mg) 828.5 (479.1) 368.1 (212.9) Potassium (mg) 1518.8 (878.3) 103.6 (59.9) Note . Values are expressed as M ( SD ). Volume of CM
Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth
, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health ( De Souza, Koltun, Southmayd, & Aurigemma, 2018 ). The first symptom of RED-S or the Female Athlete Triad is often amenorrhea—the absence of a normal menstrual period. It was disappointing to learn that some athletes had been advised
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut
, homocysteine, glycosylated hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, etc.) were not assessed in the present study, it is plausible that the young Black women in the present study may already be accruing allostatic load that is significantly higher than their White peers and thus at greater risk for developing chronic
Katelyn Esmonde and Shannon Jette
Sport Journal, 31 ( 1 ), 85 – 101 . doi:10.1123/ssj.2013-0015 10.1123/ssj.2013-0015 King , S. ( 2015 , November ). Protein cultures: Towards a political ecology of nutritional shakes . Paper presented at the meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (NASSS) , Santa Fe, NM
suggest that female-specific protein or carbohydrate requirements are necessary but that intakes of these macronutrients should be relative to the individuals’ body mass and training status. Micronutrient intake of active women can be low if energy intake is restricted, food groups are eliminated, or if a
Edmund O. Acevedo and Aaron L. Slusher
The relationship between stress and disease, in particular cardiovascular disease, has long been recognized, whereas the study of the physiological mechanisms that explain this link has only more recently received attention. The acute response to stress is generally thought to be a critically important adaptation designed to activate the system in preparation to cope with the stressor. However, prolonged stimulation of the system (acute and chronic) can lead to deleterious adaptations including the release of inflammatory cytokines (small proteins important in cell signaling) that play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Scientists have therefore used a breadth of protocols and methods to identify the complexity of our fight-or-flight response and demonstrate the synergy between perception, the stress response, physical activity, and health. In addition, the critical assessment of cellular health, the gut microbiome, and genetic polymorphisms have further advanced our understanding of additional therapeutic targets against CVD.
Brianna L. Newland, Laurence Chalip and John L. Ivy
To determine whether athletes are confused about supplementation, this study examines the relative levels of adult runners’ and triathletes’ preferences for postexercise recovery drink attributes (price, fat, taste, scientific evidence, and endorsement by a celebrity athlete), and the ways those preferences segment. It then examines the effect of athlete characteristics on segment and drink choice. Only a plurality of athletes (40.6%) chose a carbohydrate-protein postexercise recovery drink (the optimal choice), despite the fact that they valued scientific evidence highly. Athletes disliked or were indifferent to endorsement by a celebrity athlete, moderately disliked fat, and slightly preferred better tasting products. Cluster analysis of part-worths from conjoint analysis identified six market segments, showing that athletes anchored on one or two product attributes when choosing among alternatives. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that media influence, hours trained, market segment, gender, and the athlete’s sport significantly predicted drink choice, and that segment partially mediated the effect of sport on drink choice. Findings demonstrate confusion among athletes when there are competing products that each claim to support their training.
Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov
, & Willeumier, 2011 ). It has been demonstrated that exercise as a treatment modality can restore normal perfusion in the brain to areas previously affected ( Amen et al., 2011 ). A finding widely reported in the literature is that exercise produces restorative proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic growth