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Dennis van Hamont, Christopher R. Harvey, Denis Massicotte, Russell Frew, François Peronnet and Nancy J. Rehrer

Effects of feeding glucose on substrate metabolism during cycling were studied. Trained (60.0 ± 1.9 mL · kg−1 · min−1) males (N = 5) completed two 75 min, 80% VO2max trials: 125 g 13C-glucose (CHO); 13C-glucose tracer, 10 g (C). During warm-up (30 min 30% VO2max) 2 ⋅ 2 g 13C-glucose was given as bicarbonate pool primer. Breath samples and blood glucose were analyzed for 13C/ 12C with IRMS. Protein oxidation was estimated from urine and sweat urea. Indirect calorimetry (protein corrected) and 13C/ 12C enrichment in expired CO2 and blood glucose allowed exogenous (Gexo), endogenous (Gendo), muscle (Gmuscle), and liver glucose oxidation calculations. During exercise (75 min) in CHO versus C (respectively): protein oxidation was lower (6.8 ± 2.7, 18.8 ± 5.9 g; P = 0.01); Gendo was reduced (71.2 ± 3.8, 80.7 ± 5.7%; P = 0.01); Gmuscle was reduced (55.3 ± 6.1, 65.9 ± 6.0%; P = 0.01) compensated by increased Gexo (58.3 ± 2.1, 3.87 ± 0.85 g; P = 0.000002). Glucose ingestion during exercise can spare endogenous protein and carbohydrate, in fed cyclists, without gly-cogen depletion.

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Elizabeth M. Broad, Ronald J. Maughan and Stuart D.R Galloway

Twenty nonvegetarian active males were pair-matched and randomly assigned to receive 2 g of L-carnitine L-tartrate (LC) or placebo per day for 2 wk. Participants exercised for 90 min at 70% VO2max after 2 days of a prescribed diet (M ±SD: 13.6 ± 1.6 MJ, 57% carbohydrate, 15% protein, 26% fat, 2% alcohol) before and after supplementation. Results indicated no change in carbohydrate oxidation, nitrogen excretion, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, or plasma urea during exercise between the beginning and end of supplementation in either group. After 2 wk of LC supplementation the plasma ammonia response to exercise tended to be suppressed (0 vs. 2 wk at 60 min exercise, 97 ± 26 vs. 80 ± 9, and 90 min exercise, 116 ± 47 vs. 87 ± 25 μmol/L), with no change in the placebo group. The data indicate that 2 wk of LC supplementation does not affect fat, carbohydrate, and protein contribution to metabolism during prolonged moderate-intensity cycling exercise. The tendency toward suppressed ammonia accumulation, however, indicates that oral LC supplementation might have the potential to reduce the metabolic stress of exercise or alter ammonia production or removal, which warrants further investigation.

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Sharon L. Miller, P. Courtney Gaine, Carl M. Maresh, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Cara B. Ebbeling, Linda S. Lamont and Nancy R. Rodriguez

This study determined the effect of nutritional supplementation throughout endurance exercise on whole-body leucine kinetics (leucine rate of appearance [Ra], oxidation [Ox], and nonoxidative leucine disposal [NOLD]) during recovery. Five trained men underwent a 2-h run at 65% VO2max, during which a carbohydrate (CHO), mixed protein-carbohydrate (milk), or placebo (PLA) drink was consumed. Leucine kinetics were assessed during recovery using a primed, continuous infusion of 1-13C leucine. Leucine Ra and NOLD were lower for milk than for PLA. Ox was higher after milk-supplemented exercise than after CHO or PLA. Although consuming milk during the run affected whole-body leucine kinetics, the benefits of such a practice for athletes remain unclear. Additional studies are needed to determine whether protein supplementation during exercise can optimize protein utilization during recovery.