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Elizabeth Campbell and Graham Jones

This paper considered (a) the psychological well-being of wheelchair sport participants and wheelchair sport nonparticipants, and (b) the influence of competitive level on the psychological well-being of wheelchair sport participants. Psychological well-being was evaluated by considering mood, trait anxiety, self-esteem, mastery, and individual self-perceptions of health and well-being. Wheelchair sport participants exhibited an iceberg profile of positive well-being with lower tension, depression, anger, and confusion and higher vigor than the sport nonparticipant group. The sport participant group also showed significantly greater levels of mastery and more positive perceptions of their health and well-being than the sport nonparticipant group. International athletes had (a) higher levels of vigor than the national and recreational groups; (b) lower levels of anxiety than the regional and recreational groups; (c) higher levels of self-esteem than the national, regional, and recreational groups; (d) higher levels of mastery than the regional and recreational groups; and (e) more positive perceptions of their well-being than the national, regional, and recreational groups.

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C. Michael Greenwood, David A. Dzewaltowski and Ron French

The importance of self-efficacy as a cognitive mediator of wheelchair mobile individuals’ psychological well-being was examined. Specifically assessed were competitive wheelchair tennis participants’ and wheelchair nontennis participants’ mood and self-efficacy toward performing tennis and general wheelchair mobility tasks. Wheelchair tennis participants exhibited an iceberg profile of positive well-being and were higher than the Profile of Mood States norm on vigor and lower than the norm on tension, anger, depression, fatigue, and confusion. Furthermore, wheelchair mobility self-efficacy significantly correlated with wheelchair tennis self-efficacy. More important, both self-efficacy measures correlated significantly with vigor for the wheelchair tennis participants and wheelchair mobility self-efficacy correlated significantly with each mood factor except depression for the wheelchair nontennis participants. It was concluded that wheelchair mobile individuals participating in tennis may be more confident about performing tennis skills and general wheelchair mobility tasks than are wheelchair mobile nonparticipants.

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

key component of sport competition, which has been used to promote the psychological well-being of injured military personnel. Dr. Guttmann ( 1976 ), a neurosurgeon, is credited as the first professional to utilize sport competition as part of the rehabilitative process to help injured British

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner and F. Virginia Wright

Reid ( 2011 ) • Instructors should be attentive toward providing developmentally appropriate yet challenging activities to enhance participants’ mastery skills. Psychological well-being • Insufficient evidence   PA participation • Insufficient evidence   Note. Studies with ratings that were at least

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Lorcan D. Cronin and Justine B. Allen

The present study explored the relationships between the coaching climate, youth developmental experiences (personal and social skills, cognitive skills, goal setting, and initiative) and psychological well-being (self-esteem, positive affect, and satisfaction with life). In total, 202 youth sport participants (Mage = 13.4, SD = 1.8) completed a survey assessing the main study variables. Findings were consistent with Benson and Saito’s (2001) framework for youth development. In all analyses, the coaching climate was related to personal and social skills, cognitive skills, goal setting, and initiative. Mediational analysis also revealed that the development of personal and social skills mediated the relationships between the coaching climate and all three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, positive affect, and satisfaction with life). Interpretation of the results suggests that coaches should display autonomy-supportive coaching behaviors because they are related to the developmental experiences and psychological well-being of youth sport participants.

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Jacqueline C. Savis

Sleep is generally regarded important for maintaining one’s physical and psychological well-being. For the competitive athlete, many factors may negatively impact on his or her sleep, possibly resulting in compromised athletic performance. These factors include alterations in diet, changes in ambient temperature and/or altitude, traveling across time zones, and anxiety. In this article, an attempt is made to synthesize the relevant knowledge with regard to sleep and athletic performance. Sleep and performance are highly individual specific, with many interdependent factors influencing the expression of both variables. Recommendations for future research that addresses the unique demands of athletes are presented.

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Paul M. Wright and Suzanne Burton

Underserved youth are at risk for numerous threats to their physical and psychological well-being. To navigate the challenges they face, they need a variety of positive life skills. This study systematically explored the implementation and short-term outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program that was integrated into an intact high school physical education class. Qualitative methods, drawing on multiple data sources, were used to evaluate a 20-lesson teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) program. Participants were 23 African American students in an urban high school. Five themes characterized the program: (a) establishing a relevant curriculum, (b) navigating barriers, (c) practicing life skills, (d) seeing the potential for transfer, and (e) creating a valued program. Findings extend the empirical literature related to TPSR and, more generally, physical activity programs designed to promote life skills. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

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Edmund O. Acevedo, David A. Dzewaltowski, Diane L. Gill and John M. Noble

The purpose of this study was to examine the sport-specific cognitions of 112 ultramarathoners competing in a 100-mile trail run. Subjects completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory, the Commitment to Running Scale, and a questionnaire designed by the investigators to assess goals, cognitive strategies, perceptions of “runner’s high,” and feelings that occur when subjects are unable to run. Ultramarathoners were more confident, more committed to running, slightly higher in competitiveness, lower on win orientation, and higher on goal orientation in comparison to other athletes. Ultramarathoners also rated importance of and commitment to time goals very high; importance of and commitment to place goals were rated low. No significant differences in cognitive orientations were found between finishers and nonfinishers or between males and females. Responses to open-ended questions revealed that most ultramarathoners reported predominately external thoughts during races, had feelings of psychological well-being and strength as a result of ultramarathoning, never or rarely experienced runner’s high, and experienced negative psychological states when unable to run. Overall, these results demonstrate the unique sport-specific cognitive orientations of ultramarathoners.

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Iñigo Mujika

The aim of this case study was to report on the performance outcomes and subjective assessments of long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet in a world-class long-distance triathlete who had been suffering from gastrointestinal distress in Ironman competition. The lacto-ovo vegetarian athlete (age = 39 years; height = 179 cm; usual racing body mass = 75 kg; sum of seven skinfolds = 36 mm) changed his usual high carbohydrate (CHO) availability diet to an LCHF diet for 32 weeks (∼95% compliance). He participated in three professional races while on the LCHF diet, but acutely restored CHO availability by consuming CHO in the preevent meals and during the race as advised. The athlete had his worst-ever half-Ironman performance after 21 weeks on the LCHF diet (18th). After 24 weeks on LCHF, he had his second worst-ever Ironman performance (14th) and suffered his usual gastrointestinal symptoms. He did not finish his third race after 32 weeks on LCHF. He regained his usual performance level within 5 weeks back on a high CHO diet, finishing second and fourth in two Ironman events separated by just 3 weeks. Subjective psychological well-being was very negative while on the LCHF diet, with feelings of depression, irritability, and bad mood. In conclusion, this long-term (32 weeks) LCHF intervention did not solve the gastrointestinal problems that the athlete had been experiencing, it was associated with negative performance outcomes in both the half-Ironman and Ironman competitions, and it had a negative impact on the athlete’s subjective well-being.

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST VOLUME 6, ISSUE #1

Journal of Sport Science and Coaching , 13 (6), 815-827. doi: 10.1177/1747954118787949 This study investigated the relationships between the coaching climate, young people’s perceived life skills development within sport, and their psychological well-being. British youth sport participants ( N  = 326, M