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Carlos Amo, Miguel Ortiz del Castillo, Rafael Barea, Luis de Santiago, Alejandro Martínez-Arribas, Pedro Amo-López and Luciano Boquete


Propose a simplified method applicable in routine clinical practice that uses EEG to assess induced gamma-band activity (GBA) in the 30–90 Hz frequency range in cerebral motor areas.


EEG recordings (25 healthy subjects) of cerebral activity (at rest, motor task). GBA was obtained as power spectral density (PSD). GBA — defined as the gamma index (Iγ) — was calculated using the basal GBA (γB) and motor GBA (γMOV) PSD values.


The mean values of Iγ were (Iγ R (right hand) = 1.30, Iγ L (left hand) = 1.22). Manual laterality showed a correlation with Iγ.


Iγ may provide a useful way of indirectly assessing operation of activated motor neuronal circuits. It could be applied to diagnosis of motor area pathologies and as follow up in rehabilitation processes. Likewise, Iγ could enable the assessment of motor capacity, physical training and manual laterality in sport medicine.

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw and Marc Portus

For the wheelchair racing population, it is uncertain whether musculoskeletal models using the maximum isometric force-generating capacity of nonathletic, able-bodied individuals are appropriate, as few anthropometric parameters for wheelchair athletes are reported in the literature. In this study, a sensitivity analysis was performed in OpenSim, whereby the maximum isometric force-generating capacity of muscles was adjusted in 25% increments to literature-defined values between scaling factors of 0.25x and 4.0x for 2 elite athletes, at 3 speeds representative of race conditions. Convergence of the solution was used to assess the results. Artificially weakening a model presented unrealistic values, while artificially strengthening a model excessively (4.0x) demonstrated physiologically invalid muscle force values. The ideal scaling factors were 1.5x and 1.75x for each of the athletes, respectively, as was assessed through convergence of the solution. This was similar to the relative difference in limb masses between dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry data and anthropometric data in the literature (1.49x and 1.70x), suggesting that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry may be used to estimate the required scaling factors. The reliability of simulations for elite wheelchair racing athletes can be improved by appropriately increasing the maximum isometric force-generating capacity of muscles.

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John de Grosbois and Luc Tremblay

biased into false positives by changes in movement planning from one trial to the next. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the degree to which common measures for the quantification of online control processes are susceptible to offline, planning-induced changes in limb trajectories. The

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Kelly M. Meiners and Janice K. Loudon

both the SEBT and the Technobody ™ Pro-Kin are used for assessing postural stability, evaluating the relationship between tests could provide insight into each test’s contribution to postural stability measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic postural

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Christine C. Center, Samuel J. Wilkins, Ross Mathiasen and Adam B. Rosen

the cerebrum and dural sinuses. 5 The primary method of relieving intracranial pressure is to perform a surgical procedure known as decompressive craniectomy which involves the removal of a portion of the skull. 6 The purpose of this case report is to present a unique case of a high school football

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Marisa A. Colston, Gary B. Wilkerson, Hillary Dreyfus and Ryan Ross

athletes is limited. Multivariable prediction models are needed to identify high-risk high school athletes. The primary purpose of our study was to assess the predictive value of a retrospectively-derived binary risk categorization (high risk vs. low risk) of individual high school football players for the

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Scott L. Bruce and Kyra Dorney

presenting some form of posturing as a result of a concussive blow will be greater than the reported 10% of concussive cases that experience LOC. The purpose of this study was to observe elite-level football game video evidence of concussions to determine the proportion at which a posturing presentation

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Richelle M. Williams, R. Curtis Bay and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

return-to-play criteria. While research has examined symptom change during recovery, 10 few studies have investigated postinjury symptom patterns in adolescent athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe symptom burden in the first 3 weeks postconcussion and estimate the strength of

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John J. Smith and Daniel J. Baer

changes was to decrease injury exposure and increase rest and recovery time, the true impact of the rule changes on preseason football injuries remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the number of injuries and time-loss injuries during two consecutive NCAA Division II