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William J. Harvey and Greg Reid

The purpose of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the research methods in adapted physical activity studies about children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The strengths and weaknesses of various research methods are discussed by (a) three main types of research questions, (b) identification and description of research participants, (c) reliability and validity of assessment instruments, (d) data collection procedures, and (e) quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. Strategies to improve research are embedded in each of the five main categories. It is concluded that substantial methodological inconsistencies exist in the current ADHD physical activity literature base. Future research would be strengthened by incorporating recommended suggestions.

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Virginie de Bressy de Guast, Jim Golby, Anna Van Wersch and Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville

This study presents a complete psychological skills training (PST) program with a wheelchair athlete and examines the program effectiveness using a mixed-method approach. After initial testing, the athlete followed a two-month program of self-confidence building, motivational, visualization/relaxation, and injury management techniques. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the impacts on performance and psychological abilities. The triangulated results suggest that the PST program was perceived as effective by the athlete in terms of his sporting performances and mental skills. The characteristics and implications of a PST program with this wheelchair athlete are discussed, as well as the study limitations and the perspectives for future research.

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Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews and Scott Fleming

This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.

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Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Li Guan and Kathy J. Simpson

. Technometrics . 2006 ; 48 ( 3 ): 432 – 435 . doi:10.1198/004017005000000661 10.1198/004017005000000661 22. King N . Template analysis . In: Symon G , Cassell C , eds. Qualitative Methods and Analysis in Organizational Research: A Practical Guide . London, UK : Sage ; 1998 : 118 – 134 . 23

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Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike and Stephanie Mazerolle

interview protocol, as previously described. The peer reviewer was someone with a strong content knowledge in gender issues and sport. The second stage was done during the coding process. The peer reviewer was a researcher with strengths in qualitative methods, athletic training, and prior experiences

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André Bateman and Kai A.D. Morgan

measure self-efficacy, and although they may be related to the construct, they may not accurately measure the entire range of the construct. The data were obtained through the quantitative analysis of self-reports using objective scales; however, results from thematic qualitative methods could further

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

) identified three key challenges that veterans face related to social participation: (a) lack of respect from civilians, (b) considering themselves to be of a higher standard than civilians, and (c) difficulty fitting into the civilian world. The results of the qualitative methods indicated that veterans

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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

transcripts from the semi-structured interviews along with subjective information gathered from the completed e-surveys were analysed using inductive thematic analysis (six phase procedure), a qualitative method for identifying and analysing themes which emerge from the data ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ). To

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Damian Haslett and Brett Smith

all qualitative research in a predetermined manner ( Tracy, 2010 ). However, this universal approach to judging rigor is problematized by differing qualitative methods and methodologies that are underpinned by differing metaphysical assumptions ( Smith & McGannon, 2018 ; Williams, Smith

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Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio

( Clausen, Lubeck, & Jones, 2013 ). Thus, researchers have sought to better understand what motivates women to recover and why some are able to begin recovery. Due to the complex and personal nature of ED recovery, qualitative methods are well suited to explore the topic. Indeed, there is now a large body