The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of body composition and muscle strength to racial differences in bone mineral density (BMD) in chronically active older adults. Participants were 49 men and 56 women grouped according to self-selected race (Black, Asian, or White). BMD, body composition, and knee strength were measured. Asian men had significantly lower body mass, strength, and BMD than White and Black men did (p < .05). Asian and White women had significantly lower body mass and BMD than Black women did (p < .05), with few strength differences between groups. When lean mass was controlled by ANCOVA. racial differences in BMD disappeared for all bone sites in both sexes. Controlling for body mass eliminated most racial differences in BMD. Controlling for strength did not alter racial differences in BMD for either sex. These results suggest that racial differences in BMD might in part result from differences in lean mass.
Youn Soo Jung, Steven A. Hawkins and Robert A. Wiswell
Kelliann K. Davis, Deborah F. Tate, Wei Lang, Rebecca H. Neiberg, Kristen Polzien, Amy D. Rickman, Karen Erickson and John M. Jakicic
African-Americans lose less weight during a behavioral intervention compared with Whites, which may be from differences in dietary intake or physical activity.
Subjects (30% African American, 70% White; n = 346; 42.4 ± 9.0 yrs.; BMI = 33.0 ± 3.7 kg/m2) in an 18-month weight loss intervention were randomized to a standard behavioral (SBWI) or a stepped-care (STEP) intervention. Weight, dietary intake, self-report and objective physical activity, and fitness were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months.
Weight loss at 18 months was greater in Whites (–8.74 kg with 95% CI [–10.10, –7.35]) compared with African Americans (–5.62 kg with 95% CI [–7.86, –3.37]) (P = .03) in the SBWI group and the STEP group (White: –7.48 kg with 95% CI [–8.80, –6.17] vs. African American: –4.41kg with 95% CI [–6.41, –2.42]) (P = .01). Patterns of change in dietary intake were not different between groups. Objective physical activity (PA) changed over time (P < .0001) and was higher in Whites when compared with African Americans (P = .01).
Whites lost more weight (3.10 kg) than African American adults. Although there were no differences in dietary intake, Whites had higher levels of objective PA and fitness. Thus, the discrepancy in weight loss may be due to differences in PA rather than dietary intake. However, the precise role of these factors warrants further investigation.
Neil A. Doldo, Matthew J. Delmonico, Jason A. Bailey, Brian D. Hand, Matthew C. Kostek, Karma M. Rabon-Stith, Kalapurakkal S. Menon, Joan M. Conway, Craig R. Carignan and Ben F. Hurley
To determine sex and race differences in muscle power per unit of muscle contraction, knee-extensor muscle power normalized for knee-extensor muscle volume was measured in 79 middle-aged and older adults (30 men and 49 women, age range 50–85 years). Results revealed that women displayed a 38% faster peak movement velocity than men and African Americans had a 14% lower peak movement velocity than Whites of a similar age when expressed per unit of involved muscle (p < .001). As expected, men exhibited greater knee-extensor strength and peak power per unit of muscle than women, but women had a faster knee-extension movement velocity per unit of muscle than men at the same relative strength level. Moreover, African Americans had greater knee-extensor muscle volume than Whites but exhibited lower knee-extensor strength and lower movement velocity per unit of muscle when tested at the same relative strength levels.
Rebecca E. Hasson, Kirsten E. Granados, David Xavier Marquez, Gary Bennett, Patty Freedson and Barry Braun
Racial differences in psychological determinants of exercise exist between non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and non-Hispanic whites (whites). To date, no study has examined racial differences in the psychological responses during and after exercise. The objective of this study was to compare psychological outcomes of single exercise bouts in blacks and whites.
On 3 separate occasions, sedentary black (n = 16) and white (n = 14) participants walked on a treadmill at 75%max HR for 75 minutes. Questionnaires assessing mood, state anxiety, and exercise task self-efficacy were administered before and after each exercise bout. In-task mood and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every 5 minutes during exercise.
Exercise self-efficacy and psychological distress significantly improved in both blacks and whites. However during exercise blacks reported more positive in-task mood and lower RPE compared with whites.
These data suggest that racial differences exist in psychological responses during exercise. Further research should confirm these findings in a larger, free-living population.
Joan L. Duda and Maria T. Allison
The-role of race and ethnicity in explaining variability in human behavior has long been considered in the anthropological and sociological studies of play, games, and sport. This paper suggests ways in which the field of sport and exercise psychology might more systematically begin to incorporate factors of race and ethnicity into its research agendas. The paper is divided into four major sections. The first section provides evidence of a dearth of such research in the field of sport and exercise psychology. The second section presents an overview of current work that highlights ethnic/racial differences in motor performance, physical activity levels, and recreational sport participation. The third section explores the theoretical relevance of comparative research on ethnic/racial similarities and differences in psychological processes and behavior. Finally, potential research methodologies that might be used in psychological research in sport and exercise contexts are presented. Implications for both basic and applied work are offered.
Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown
Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging (SOA). Furthermore, we examined the data for racial differences on all-cause mortality. Methods Study Design and Participants The UAB SOA was a longitudinal 8.5 years investigation that examined racial differences in mobility in a sample of Black and White community
Gregory Knell, Deborah Salvo, Kerem Shuval, Casey Durand, Harold W. Kohl III and Kelley P. Gabriel
). However, recent technological advances now allow for mail-based delivery and collection of behavioral measures (e.g., accelerometry for physical activity assessment) in large epidemiological studies ( Lee & Shiroma, 2014 ). For example, beginning in the early 2000s, the Reasons for Geographic and Racial
Adilson Santos Andrade de Sousa, Marilia A. Correia, Breno Quintella Farah, Glauco Saes, Antônio Eduardo Zerati, Pedro Puech-Leao, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel G. Cucato and Raphael M. Ritti-Dias
.I. , Ungvari , Z. , . . . Sonntag , W.E. ( 2015 ). Gender and racial differences in endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease . Journal of Vascular Surgery, 61 ( 5 ), 1249 – 1257 . PubMed ID: 24703977 doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2014.02.045 10.1016/j
Nele Huys, Vicky Van Stappen, Samyah Shadid, Marieke De Craemer, Odysseas Androutsos, Jaana Lindström, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Maria S. de Sabata, Luis Moreno, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Violeta Iotova, Imre Rurik, Yannis Manios, Greet Cardon and on behalf of the Feel4Diabetes-Study Group
.genhosppsych.2012.07.005 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.07.005 22898447 34. Howard DH , Sentell T , Gazmararian JA . Impact of health literacy on socioeconomic and racial differences in health in an elderly population . J Gen Intern Med . 2006 ; 21 ( 8 ): 857 – 861 . PubMed ID: 16881947 doi:10.1111/j.1525
Carla Elane Silva dos Santos, Sofia Wolker Manta, Guilherme Pereira Maximiano, Susana Cararo Confortin, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Eleonora d’Orsi and Cassiano Ricardo Rech
. Barnes LL , Wilson RS , Hebert LE , Scherr PA , Evans DA , Mendes de Leon CF . Racial differences in the association of education with physical and cognitive function in older blacks and whites . J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci . 2011 ; 66 ( 3 ): 354 – 363 . PubMed ID: 21402644 doi:10