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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García and Alejandro Lucia

ketone supplement was ingested before (ie, in the hours prior to exercise) or during exercise, but not “chronically” (during more than 1 d) or postexercise (as a recovery aid); and (4) used a randomized controlled trial design that included at least one control intervention consisting of taking a drink

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Dorina Ianc, Carmen Serbescu, Marius Bembea, Laurent Benhamou, Eric Lespessailles and Daniel Courteix

We investigated the effects of calcium supplementation and physical practice on the bone ultrasound properties and trabecular microarchitecture in children. 160 children aged 8−11 were randomly allocated to active or nonactive groups and to receive either a calcium-phosphate or a placebo powder for 6 months. Skeletal status was assessed using an ultrasound technique, which measures the speed of sound (Ad-SoS, m/s) at the phalanx. Bone microarchitecture was characterized by fractal analysis measured on calcaneus radiographs and the result expressed as the Hmean parameter, that has been shown to a good reliability of the bone texture quality. After 6 months, the calcium group had significantly gained Ad-SoS compared to the placebo group (P = 0.01) and Hmean increase was greater in the active than the nonactive group (P < 0.05). Exercise and calcium supplementation had a differential effect on the bone tissue, calcium being rather linked to a systemic effect whereas exercise has acted better onto the skeletal stressed site.

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Danny Lum and Tiago M. Barbosa

meta-analysis providing an estimate of the contributions by several factors to the improvement in OTBS time-trial performance (such as age, training status, and duration of training program). Methods Literature Search A systematic search of randomized controlled trials on the effects of strength

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . Journal of Nutrition, 147 ( 12 ), 2252 – 2261 . PubMed ID: 28855419 doi:10.3945/jn.117.254532 10.3945/jn.117.254532 Levenhagen , D.K. , Carr , C. , Carlson , M.G. , Maron , D.J. , Borel , M.J. , & Flakoll , P.J. ( 2002

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Kirsty A. Fairbairn, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, C. Murray Skeaff, Claire M. Cameron and Tracy L. Perry

to be investigated. Given that vitamin D insufficiency is common in NZ, and that cross-sectional data implies an association between vitamin D status and physical performance, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on athletic performance in NZ

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Jairus J. Quesnele, Michelle A. Laframboise, Jessica J. Wong, Peter Kim and Greg D. Wells

Purpose:

To critically review the methodological quality and synthesize information from systematic reviews and high quality studies on the effects of beta alanine (BA) on exercise and athletic performance.

Methods:

A search strategy was developed in accordance with the standards for the reporting of scientific literature via systematic reviews. Five databases were thoroughly searched from inception to November 2012. Inclusion criteria were English language, human studies, used BA to increase exercise or athletic performance, systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Included studies were systematically graded for their methodological quality by rotating pairs of reviewers and the results were qualitatively synthesized.

Results:

One systematic review and 19 randomized trials were included in this review. There is one systematic review with several methodological weaknesses that limit the confidence in its results. There are moderate to high quality studies that appear to support that BA may increase power output and working capacity, decrease the feeling of fatigue and exhaustion, and have of positive effect on body composition and carnosine content. The reporting of side effects from BA supplementation in the athletic population was generally under-reported.

Conclusions:

There appears to be some evidence from this review that supplementation with BA may increase athletic performance. However, there is insufficient evidence examining the safety of BA supplementation and its side effects. It is therefore recommended to err on the side of caution in using BA as an ergogenic aid until there is sufficient evidence confirming its safety.

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Dana Lis, Kiran D.K. Ahuja, Trent Stellingwerff, Cecilia M. Kitic and James Fell

Athletes employ various dietary strategies in attempts to attenuate exercise-induced gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms to ensure optimal performance. This case-study outlines one of these GI-targeted approaches via the implementation of a short-term low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols) diet, with the aim to attenuate persistent running specific GI symptoms in a recreationally competitive multisport athlete (male, 86 kg, 57.9 ml·kg·min-1 V02max, 10–15 hr/week training, with no diagnosed GI disorder). Using a single-blinded approach a habitual diet was compared with a 6-day low FODMAP intervention diet (81 ± 5g vs 7.2 ± 5.7g FODMAP s/day) for their effect on GI symptoms and perceptual wellbeing. Training was similar during the habitual and dietary intervention periods. Postexercise (During) GI symptom ratings were recorded immediately following training. Daily GI symptoms and the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) were recorded at the end of each day. Daily and During GI symptom scores (scale 0–9) ranged from 0–4 during the habitual dietary period while during the low FODMAP dietary period all scores were 0 (no symptoms at all). DALDA scores for worse than normal ranged from 3–10 vs 0–8 in the habitual and low FODMAP dietary periods, respectively, indicating improvement. This intervention was effective for this GI symptom prone athlete; however, randomized-controlled trials are required to assess the suitability of low FODMAP diets for reducing GI distress in other symptomatic athletes.

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Joel C. Craddock, Yasmine C. Probst and Gregory E. Peoples

Humans consuming vegetarian-based diets are observed to have reduced relative risk for many chronic diseases. Similarly, regular physical activity has also been shown to assist in preventing, and reducing the severity of these conditions. Many people, including athletes, acknowledge these findings and are adopting a vegetarian-based diet to improve their health status. Furthermore, athletes are incorporating this approach with the specific aim of optimizing physical performance. To examine the evidence for the relationship between consuming a predominately vegetarian-based diet and improved physical performance, a systematic literature review was performed using the SCOPUS database. No date parameters were set. The keywords vegetarian OR vegan AND sport OR athlete OR training OR performance OR endurance were used to identify relevant literature. Included studies (i) directly compared a vegetarian-based diet to an omnivorous/mixed diet, (ii) directly assessed physical performance, not biomarkers of physical performance, and (iii) did not use supplementation emulating a vegetarian diet. Reference lists were hand searched for additional studies. Seven randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study met the inclusion criteria. No distinguished differences between vegetarian-based diets and omnivorous mixed diets were identified when physical performance was compared. Consuming a predominately vegetarian-based diet did not improve nor hinder performance in athletes. However, with only 8 studies identified, with substantial variability among the studies’ experimental designs, aims and outcomes, further research is warranted.

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Leslie N. Silk, David A. Greene and Michael K. Baker

Research examining the preventative effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation has focused on children and females, leaving the effects on male bone mineral density (BMD) largely unexplored. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D for improving BMD in healthy males. Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Complete, CINHAHL Plus and PubMed databases were searched for studies including healthy males which provided participants calcium supplementation with or without vitamin D and used changes to BMD as the primary outcome measure. Between trial standardized mean differences of percentage change from baseline in BMD of femoral neck, lumbar spine, total body and total hip sites were calculated. Nine studies were included in the systematic review with six references totaling 867 participants contributing to the meta-analysis. Significant pooled effects size (ES) for comparison between supplementation and control groups were found at all sites included in the meta-analysis. The largest effect was found in total body (ES = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.406–0.883; p < .001), followed by total hip (ES = 0.483, 95% CI= 0.255–0.711, p < .001), femoral neck (ES = 0.402, 95% CI = 0.233–0.570, p = .000) and lumbar spine (ES = 0.306, 95% CI = 0.173–0.440, p < .001). Limited evidence appears to support the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for improving BMD in older males. There is a need for high quality randomized controlled trials, especially in younger and middle-aged male cohorts and athletic populations to determine whether supplementation provides a preventative benefit.

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Wigand Poppendieck, Oliver Faude, Melissa Wegmann and Tim Meyer

Purpose:

Cooling after exercise has been investigated as a method to improve recovery during intensive training or competition periods. As many studies have included untrained subjects, the transfer of those results to trained athletes is questionable.

Methods:

Therefore, the authors conducted a literature search and located 21 peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials addressing the effects of cooling on performance recovery in trained athletes.

Results:

For all studies, the effect of cooling on performance was determined and effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were calculated. Regarding performance measurement, the largest average effect size was found for sprint performance (2.6%, g = 0.69), while for endurance parameters (2.6%, g = 0.19), jump (3.0%, g = 0.15), and strength (1.8%, g = 0.10), effect sizes were smaller. The effects were most pronounced when performance was evaluated 96 h after exercise (4.3%, g = 1.03). Regarding the exercise used to induce fatigue, effects after endurance training (2.4%, g = 0.35) were larger than after strength-based exercise (2.4%, g = 0.11). Cold-water immersion (2.9%, g = 0.34) and cryogenic chambers (3.8%, g = 0.25) seem to be more beneficial with respect to performance than cooling packs (−1.4%, g= −0.07). For cold-water application, whole-body immersion (5.1%, g = 0.62) was significantly more effective than immersing only the legs or arms (1.1%, g = 0.10).

Conclusions:

In summary, the average effects of cooling on recovery of trained athletes were rather small (2.4%, g = 0.28). However, under appropriate conditions (whole-body cooling, recovery from sprint exercise), postexercise cooling seems to have positive effects that are large enough to be relevant for competitive athletes.