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Carolee Winstein

randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions for recovery should be an imperative ( Campbell et al., 2000 ). We return to the issue raised earlier, “social and personal factors can have a high impact on stroke recovery in humans….and are not well modelled in preclinical research”. One noted

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Jennifer L. Etnier

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic illness characterized by clinical cognitive impairment. A behavioral strategy that is being explored in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease is physical activity. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of physical activity for cognitively normal older adults supports that physical activity benefits cognitive performance. Evidence from prospective studies supports a protective effect of physical activity with reductions in the risk of cognitive decline ranging from 28% to 45%. RCTs with cognitively impaired older adults also generally support positive effects with greater benefits evident for aerobic interventions. Research examining the potential moderating role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has yielded mixed results, but the majority of the studies support that physical activity most benefits those who are at greatest genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease. Future directions for research are considered with an emphasis on the need for additional funding to support this promising area of research.

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Jeffrey S. Becasen, Michael W. Beets, Allison J. Nihiser, Sarah M. Lee and Janet E. Fulton

A systematic review of literature was conducted to examine the association between changes in health-related fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and muscular strength/endurance) and chronic disease risk factors in overweight and/or obese youth. Studies published from 2000–2010 were included if the physical activity intervention was a randomized controlled trial and reported changes in fitness and health outcomes by direction and significance (p < .05) of the effect. Aerobic capacity improved in 91% and muscular fitness improved in 82% of measures reported. Nearly all studies (32 of 33) reported improvement in at least one fitness test. Changes in outcomes related to adiposity, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and mental/emotional health improved in 60%, 32%, 53%, 41%, and 33% of comparisons studied, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obese youth can improve physical fitness across a variety of test measures. When fitness improves, beneficial health effects are observed in some, but not all chronic disease risk factors.

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross

interesting that six of the seven studies employed child obesity-prevention programs. Overall, the majority-Latino samples ranged from N  = 49 to N  = 629 children, and the interventions lasted 10 weeks to 2 years; five of them were randomized controlled trials. Following, these studies are described in

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

into randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs depending on the method of participant assignment, according to the evidence-based-medicine pyramid ( Glover, Izzo, Odato, & Wang, 2006 ). Characteristics and Control of Cortical Processes for Superior Motor Performance Frontal Sites The primary

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent and Sarah Burkart

inclusion and exclusion criteria during the title and abstract examination. Inclusion criteria for this review were interventions that targeted physical activity; experimental study designs (i.e., randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, comparative studies, or quasi-experimental studies

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

efficacy trials, followed by rigorously designed randomized controlled trials, are required to confirm the efficacy of this behavioral strategy to increase MVPA. Duration The current recommendation from the PAGAC scientific report ( PAGAC, 2018 ) is that “bouts, or episodes, of moderate

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of physical-activity-enhancing interventions involving people with SCI and other physical disabilities. Interventions had a small to medium-size effect on physical activity behavior ( g  = 0.35, k  = 22), with theory-based interventions having significantly larger effects

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Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Samuel R. Walton

.1093/milmed/usz162 Register-Mihalik , J.K. , Guskiewicz , K.M. , Marshall , S.W. , McCulloch , K.L. , Mihalik , J.P. , Mrazik , M. , … Active Rehab Study Consortium Investigators . ( 2019 ). Methodology and implementation of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for early post

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Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen

.H. , Pontifex , M.B. , Castelli , D.M. , Khan , N.A. , Raine , L.B. , Scudder , M.R. , . . . Kamijo , K. ( 2014 ). Effects of the FITKids randomized controlled trial on executive control and brain function . Pediatrics, 134 ( 4 ), e1063 – e1071 . PubMed ID: 25266425 doi:10.1542/peds.2013