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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García and Alejandro Lucia

ketone supplement was ingested before (ie, in the hours prior to exercise) or during exercise, but not “chronically” (during more than 1 d) or postexercise (as a recovery aid); and (4) used a randomized controlled trial design that included at least one control intervention consisting of taking a drink

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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang

postintervention, participants were asked to complete the Stroop and determination tests. The sample size was estimated using a meta-analysis that reported a small to moderate positive effect of PA on EFs based on randomized controlled trials (i.e., Hedges’ g  = .24 in de Greeff et al. ( 2018 ); effect size [ES

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Danny Lum and Tiago M. Barbosa

meta-analysis providing an estimate of the contributions by several factors to the improvement in OTBS time-trial performance (such as age, training status, and duration of training program). Methods Literature Search A systematic search of randomized controlled trials on the effects of strength

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . Journal of Nutrition, 147 ( 12 ), 2252 – 2261 . PubMed ID: 28855419 doi:10.3945/jn.117.254532 10.3945/jn.117.254532 Levenhagen , D.K. , Carr , C. , Carlson , M.G. , Maron , D.J. , Borel , M.J. , & Flakoll , P.J. ( 2002

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Joanne E. Perry, Michael Ross, Jeremiah Weinstock and Terri Weaver

Research has supported mindfulness as a predictor of athletic success. This study used a parallel trial design to examine the benefit of a brief one-session mindfulness training for performance on an individual, nonpacing, closed skill athletic task (i.e., golf putting). All participants (N = 65) answered questionnaires and engaged in two trials of the putting task. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group using a simple randomization strategy. Between trials, the intervention group received a mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness intervention included psychoeducation, reflection upon previous sport experiences, an experiential exercise, and putting applications. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the intervention group exhibited more successful outcomes on objective putting performance, flow state experience, and state anxiety (p < .05). Results suggest mindfulness may prevent performance deterioration and could produce psychological benefits after a brief training session.

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Dorina Ianc, Carmen Serbescu, Marius Bembea, Laurent Benhamou, Eric Lespessailles and Daniel Courteix

We investigated the effects of calcium supplementation and physical practice on the bone ultrasound properties and trabecular microarchitecture in children. 160 children aged 8−11 were randomly allocated to active or nonactive groups and to receive either a calcium-phosphate or a placebo powder for 6 months. Skeletal status was assessed using an ultrasound technique, which measures the speed of sound (Ad-SoS, m/s) at the phalanx. Bone microarchitecture was characterized by fractal analysis measured on calcaneus radiographs and the result expressed as the Hmean parameter, that has been shown to a good reliability of the bone texture quality. After 6 months, the calcium group had significantly gained Ad-SoS compared to the placebo group (P = 0.01) and Hmean increase was greater in the active than the nonactive group (P < 0.05). Exercise and calcium supplementation had a differential effect on the bone tissue, calcium being rather linked to a systemic effect whereas exercise has acted better onto the skeletal stressed site.

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Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert and Moritz Anderten

Adolescent soccer players experience many stressors and negative stress-related outcomes. Short-term stress-prevention programs are frequently implemented in youth sports, although there is limited evidence of their usefulness and effectiveness. Thus, the present study evaluated the usefulness and effectiveness of a stress-prevention workshop for adolescent soccer players. Ninety-two soccer players (age: M = 15.5 years, SD = 1.43; 31.5% female) were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or an intervention control group. To evaluate effectiveness, stress, coping, and depression were assessed at baseline (t1) and 4 weeks postworkshop (t2). To investigate usefulness, the perceived quality of results was assessed at t2. No intervention effects on stress, coping, and depression emerged, but both groups exhibited high values regarding perceived quality of results. Although one workshop might not be enough to modify stress-related parameters, it may be useful for adolescent soccer players and pave the way for long-term interventions.

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Tom Clifford, Eleanor J. Hayes, Jadine H. Scragg, Guy Taylor, Kieran Smith, Kelly A. Bowden Davies and Emma J. Stevenson

Purpose: This study examined whether a higher protein diet following strenuous exercise can alter markers of muscle damage and inflammation in older adults. Methods: Using a double-blind, independent group design, 10 males and eight females (age 57 ± 4 years; mass 72.3 ± 5.6 kg; height 1.7 ± 6.5 m) were supplied with a higher protein (2.50 g·kg−1·day−1) or moderate protein (1.25 g·kg−1·day−1) diet for 48 hr after 140 squats with 25% of their body mass. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, muscle soreness, creatine kinase, Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted, and inflammatory markers were measured preexercise, and 24 hr and 48 hr postexercise. Results: The maximal isometric voluntary contractions decreased postexercise (p = .001, ηp2=.421), but did not differ between groups (p = .822, ηp2=.012). Muscle soreness peaked at 24 hr post in moderate protein (44 ± 30 mm) and 48 hr post in higher protein (70 ± 46 mm; p = .005; ηp2=.282); however, no group differences were found (p = .585; ηp2=.083). Monocytes and lymphocytes significantly decreased postexercise, and eosinophils increased 24 hr postexercise (p < 0.05), but neutrophils, creatine kinase, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted were unchanged by exercise or the intervention (p > .05). Conclusion: In conclusion, 2.50 g·kg−1·day−1 of protein is not more effective than 1.25 g·kg−1·day−1 for attenuating indirect markers of muscle damage and inflammation following strenuous exercise in older adults.

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Ming-Lang Tseng, Chien-Chang Ho, Shih-Chang Chen, Yi-Chia Huang, Cheng-Hsiu Lai and Yung-Po Liaw

Evidence suggests that physical activity has a beneficial effect of elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on reducing coronary artery risk. However, previous studies show contrasting results for this association between different types of exercise training (i.e., aerobic, resistance, or combined aerobic and resistance training). The aim of this study was to determine which type of exercise training is more effective in increasing HDL-C levels. Forty obese men, age 18–29 yr, were randomized into 4 groups: an aerobic-training group (n = 10), a resistance-training group (n = 10), a combined-exercise-training group (n = 10), and a control group (n = 10). After a 12-wk exercise program, anthropometrics, blood biochemical variables, and physical-fitness components were compared with the data obtained at the baseline. Multiple-regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between different types of exercise training and changes in HDL-C while adjusting for potential confounders. The results showed that with the control group as the comparator, the effects of combined-exercise training (β = 4.17, p < .0001), aerobic training (β = 3.65, p < .0001), and resistance training (β = 2.10, p = .0001) were positively associated with increase in HDL-C after adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings suggested that a short-term exercise program can play an important role in increasing HDL-C levels; either aerobic or resistance training alone significantly increases the HDL-C levels, but the improvements are greatest with combined aerobic and resistance training.

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Kirsty A. Fairbairn, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, C. Murray Skeaff, Claire M. Cameron and Tracy L. Perry

to be investigated. Given that vitamin D insufficiency is common in NZ, and that cross-sectional data implies an association between vitamin D status and physical performance, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on athletic performance in NZ