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Carolee Winstein

randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions for recovery should be an imperative ( Campbell et al., 2000 ). We return to the issue raised earlier, “social and personal factors can have a high impact on stroke recovery in humans….and are not well modelled in preclinical research”. One noted

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Jennifer L. Etnier

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic illness characterized by clinical cognitive impairment. A behavioral strategy that is being explored in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease is physical activity. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of physical activity for cognitively normal older adults supports that physical activity benefits cognitive performance. Evidence from prospective studies supports a protective effect of physical activity with reductions in the risk of cognitive decline ranging from 28% to 45%. RCTs with cognitively impaired older adults also generally support positive effects with greater benefits evident for aerobic interventions. Research examining the potential moderating role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has yielded mixed results, but the majority of the studies support that physical activity most benefits those who are at greatest genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease. Future directions for research are considered with an emphasis on the need for additional funding to support this promising area of research.

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Jeffrey S. Becasen, Michael W. Beets, Allison J. Nihiser, Sarah M. Lee and Janet E. Fulton

A systematic review of literature was conducted to examine the association between changes in health-related fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and muscular strength/endurance) and chronic disease risk factors in overweight and/or obese youth. Studies published from 2000–2010 were included if the physical activity intervention was a randomized controlled trial and reported changes in fitness and health outcomes by direction and significance (p < .05) of the effect. Aerobic capacity improved in 91% and muscular fitness improved in 82% of measures reported. Nearly all studies (32 of 33) reported improvement in at least one fitness test. Changes in outcomes related to adiposity, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and mental/emotional health improved in 60%, 32%, 53%, 41%, and 33% of comparisons studied, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obese youth can improve physical fitness across a variety of test measures. When fitness improves, beneficial health effects are observed in some, but not all chronic disease risk factors.

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Jafrā D. Thomas and Bradley J. Cardinal

.A. , Malone , R.M. , Bryant , M.E. , Kosnar , M.C. , Corr , K.E. , Rothman , R.L. , … Pignone , M.P. ( 2006 ). A heart failure self-management program for patients of all literacy levels: A randomized, controlled trial [ISRCTN11535170] . BMC Health Services Research, 6 , 30 . PubMed ID

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Tanya Prewitt-White, Christopher P. Connolly, Yuri Feito, Alexandra Bladek, Sarah Forsythe, Logan Hamel and Mary Ryan McChesney

and toning exercise training during pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial . American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 201 ( 6 ), 590.e1 – 590.e6 . doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2009.06.004 10.1016/j.ajog.2009.06.004 Bauer , P.W. , Broman , C.L. , & Pivarnik , J.M. ( 2010 ). Exercise and

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of randomized controlled trials related to the aims of the lecture. There is limited evidence that lifestyle interventions can prevent excessive gestational weight gain, and regular weighing during pregnancy is ineffective. Current reviews indicate that interventions can be effective in helping women

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Jesse Couture

controlled trial . International Journal of Obesity, 32 ( 6 ), 1016 – 1027 . PubMed doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.5 10.1038/ijo.2008.5 Berg , B.L. ( 2009 ). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences ( 7th ed. ), Boston, MA : Allyn & Bacon . Burns , R. , & Crawford , C. ( 1999 ). School

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross

interesting that six of the seven studies employed child obesity-prevention programs. Overall, the majority-Latino samples ranged from N  = 49 to N  = 629 children, and the interventions lasted 10 weeks to 2 years; five of them were randomized controlled trials. Following, these studies are described in

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

into randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs depending on the method of participant assignment, according to the evidence-based-medicine pyramid ( Glover, Izzo, Odato, & Wang, 2006 ). Characteristics and Control of Cortical Processes for Superior Motor Performance Frontal Sites The primary

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent and Sarah Burkart

inclusion and exclusion criteria during the title and abstract examination. Inclusion criteria for this review were interventions that targeted physical activity; experimental study designs (i.e., randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, comparative studies, or quasi-experimental studies