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Barry Lavay and Peggy Lasko-McCarthey

To successfully conduct quality research, professionals in adapted physical activity (APA) must address a number of unique and challenging issues. These issues include difficulty in acquiring large and homogenous samples; developing valid, reliable, and commercially available test instruments and protocols specific to persons with disabilities; properly training doctoral students to conduct quality research; and maintaining a specific research focus. With regard to these issues, this paper provides the following recommendations: utilize alternative research designs; acquire adequate graduate research training; develop a research focus as an adapted physical activity researcher; and promote an interdisciplinary, collaborative research effort among professionals. Most important, through continued scholarly research adapted physical activity professionals will be able to expand the scientific body of knowledge.

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

that a 70-minute PNE session for undergraduate physiotherapy students improved pain neurophysiology knowledge, improved attitudes, and increased the likelihood of delivering appropriate treatment recommendations to patients with chronic pain. Given the prevalence of low back pain in the athletic

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Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Patrick O. McKeon

Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted . . . but to weigh and consider.” — Francis Bacon (1561–1626) A highly promoted element of evidence-based practice (EBP) is the Strength of Recommendation (SOR) . The SOR is usually a letter grade (A, B, or C) and is a

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Kara N. Gange, Michael C. Kjellerson and Christiane J. Berdan

Context: Therapeutic ultrasound clinical parameters are provided in many modality textbooks based on research performed with the Omnisound brand. Literature exists to support variability in heating rates with different manufacturers. It is unknown if the Dynatron Solaris heats at rates consistent with textbook recommendations. Objective: Determine the rate of tissue-temperature increases in the medial triceps surae with the Dynatron Solaris® 708 ultrasound unit. Design: 3 × 13 repeated measures. Independent variables were tissue depth (1.0, 1.75, and 2.5 cm) and time (13 time periods throughout the treatment). Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 30 healthy volunteers (female = 11, male = 19; age 21.30 ± 1.95 y; adipose thickness = 0.54 ± 0.15 cm). Intervention: Three thermocouples were inserted into the medial triceps surae at 1.0, 1.75, and 2.5-cm depths. A continuous 3-MHz, 1.0-W/cm2 for 20 minutes ultrasound treatment was performed with a Dynatron Solaris 708 machine. Main Outcome Measures: Intramuscular tissue-temperature increases at each depth throughout the 20-min treatment. Results: There was a significant main effect of depth (F 2,52 = 29.76, P < 0.001) and time (F 12,312 = 181.59, P < .001) and a significant interaction between times and depths (F 24,624 = 15.49, P < .001). The 1.0-cm depth increased 4.22 ± 1.58°C in 6 min (0.70°C/min rate), the 1.75-cm depth increased 3.93 ± 1.94°C in 10 min (0.39°C/min rate), and the 2.5-cm depth increased 3.60 ± 1.86°C in 20 min (0.18°C/min rate). Conclusions: The rate of tissue-temperature increase varied at each depth and the 1.0-cm depth was the only rate similar to textbooks. Clinicians will not reach tissue-temperature goals using Omnisound textbook parameters on the Dynatron Solaris 708 at depths greater than 1.0 cm, which may affect clinicians, educators, and state-certification exams.

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

relationship between eating disorder symptoms and psychosocial constructs, such as weight pressures, body dissatisfaction, and body ideal internalization. Researchers have more systematically examined the effectiveness of eating disorder prevention efforts designed for athletes and provided recommendations for

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Mathew W. Lively

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Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung and James H. Rimmer

; (m) research priorities or recommendations; and (n) additional observations noted by the two analysts of the present study. Prior to data extraction, the analysts practiced extracting data until a total percentage agreement of 90% was reached. After data extraction was completed, both authors reached

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Jeffrey K. Kawaguchi and Robin K. Pickering

Edited by Mary Barnum

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Shane V. Caswell, Matthew York, Jatin P. Ambegaonkar, Amanda M. Caswell and Nelson Cortes

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Caroline A. Heaney

Column-editor : Craig A. Wrisberg and Leslee A. Fisher